การทำงานที่มีสรรพคุณเป็นสารเสริมภูมิคุ้มกัน (Immune response potentiation)

Immune response potentiation: Goodridge HS, Reyes CN, Becker CA, Katsumoto TR, Ma J, Wolf AJ, Bose N, Chan AS, Magee AS, Danielson ME, Weiss A, Vasilakos JP, Underhill DM; “Activation of the innate immune receptor Dectin-1 upon formation of a ‘phagocytic synapse’,” IBD and Immunobiolgy Research Institute, Available Oct 28, 2011. Quote: “The ‘phagocytic synapse [of particulate B-glucan]…provides a…mechanism…thereby initiating direct cellular antimicrobial responses only when they are required.”  Note: Particulate beta 1,3/1,6 glucan potentiates an immune response when a microbe is directly contacted, but does not stimulate an immune response indiscriminately.

Immune response potentiation: Brown G D, Gordon Siamon; “Fungal B-Glucans and Mammalian Immunity.” Sir William Dunn Sch of Pathology, U of Oxford, UK, Immunity, Vol19, 311-316, 2003.  Quote: B-Glucans are structural cell wall polymers of many fungi which possesses  immunomodulatory activities. …The innate immune response is essential for the control of fungal infections, and there is increasing evidence that B-glucans are involved in initiating many aspects of this response.  The recognition of fungal pathogens occurs through both opsonic (mainly complement) and nonopsonic mechanisms, and as conserved structural components, B-glucans…play an important role in the non-opsonic recognition of these[fungal] pathogens. 

Indeed, many of the B-glucan receptors…have been shown to contribute to the recognition and phagocytosis of these organisms [fungal pathogens].  … B-glucans, especially in particulate form, can produce proinflammatory and antimicrobial responses through the TLRs and Dectin-1 [cell receptors for B-glucan]. Many of these responses are required for the control of fungal infections, such as the production of TNF-Alpha, and is an essential early cytokine required for the control of infections with C. albicans, A. fumigatus, C. neoformans, and H capsulatum. This is also true for IL-12, another important anti-fungal cytokine… . Thus B-glucans appear to have an important role in the innate immune response to fungal pathogens and in initiating a protective adaptive response.

…particulate B-glucans can directly activate leukocytes, stimulating their phagocytic, cytotoxic, and antimicrobial activities, including the production of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates.  In addition, these carbohydrates [B-glucans] stimulate the production of proinflammatory mediators, cytokines and chemokines such as IL-8, IL1, IL-6 and TNF Alpha.  Stimulation by particulate B-glucans also enhances the ability of macrophages to recognize and clear  apoptotic [dying or dead] cells… .”

Immune response potentiation: Hunter K, Gault R, Jordan F, “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Oct 1998. Quote: “… the size of a particle is one factor influencing phagocytic [microbe ingestion] efficiency by macrophages. …the number of macrophages actively phagocytosing [ingesting microbes] is affected by the particle size of the glucan.  This would suggest that, in vivo, a greater number of macrophages may be activated and thus would provide an enhanced immune response. …these data do indicate that glucan particle size is an important factor in the production of nitric oxide. Nitric oxide is generated during the “oxidative burst” that kills ingested microbes.  This would suggest that the small particle glucan [MG Glucan] has greater ability to enhance the immune system than the globular form of glucan.”    

Immune response potentiation: Jordan F, Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, “Method for preparing small particle size glucan in a dry material,” U.S. Patent 6,476,003. November 2002. Quote: “The greater generation and/or production of NO (Nitric Oxide) demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage with a small particle size glucan which is indicative of an activity level of an immune system. … The measurement of NO production is indicative of an oxidative burst that kills and/or destroys the ingested microbes and/or particles by the macrophage.

As a glucan re-aggregates into particles of greater than one micron in diameter, it appears to pass through an animal or human digestive system without substantially complete absorption.

… As the glucan re-aggregates to a size of greater than one micron in diameter, some of the beneficial effect of the glucan is not achieved because the macrophage receptors are not activated as readily by glucan greater than one micron in diameter because the receptor size on corresponding cells and molecules that accept the glucan is generally about one micron in size.

…The greater percentage phagocytosis demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage and the small particle size glucan’s ability to activate the immune system.”

Immune response potentiation: Hunter KW, Gault RA, Berner MD, “Preparation of microparticulate B-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for use in immune potentiation.” Letters in Applied Microbiology,” Vol 35 Issue 4, 267-271, October 2002 (commercially MG Beta Glucan).                

Immune response potentiation: Janusz M.J., Austen K.F., Czop J.K.; “Isolation of a Yeast Heptaglucoside that Inhibits Monocyte Phagocytosis  of Zymosan Particles”. The Journal of Immunology; 142:959-965. Dept of Med, Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA.* 1989.  Quote: “Beta-Glucans with 1,3-and 1,6  glycosidic linkages are the major structural components of yeast and fungal cell walls and are active pharmacologic agents in host defense systems of plants and animals….The administration of particulate glucans from S. cerevisiae to laboratory animals induces host resistance to a variety of lethal pathogens by mechanisms involving macrophage stimulation.“

Immune response – Activation of White Blood Cells: Czop, Joyce K., “The Role of .beta.-Glucan Receptors on Blood and tissue Leukocytes in Phagocytosis and metabolic Activation”.  Pathology and Immunopathology Research;

Immune response – Activation: Czop J.K., Austen K.F., A B-glucan Inhibitable Receptor on Human Monocytes: Its Identity with the Phagocytic Receptor for Particular Activators of the Alternative Complement Pathway. Journal of Immunology 134: 1985;  2588-2593. 1985.* (copy available)

Immune Response – Immune T Cells Enhancement: Lotzova and Gutterman,  “Effect of Glucan on Natural Killer (NK) Cells: Further Comparison Between NK Cell and Bone Marrow Effector Cell Activities”. J. Immunol., 123: 607-611. 1979.

Immune Response – Increased Survival: Todd, R.F.; “The Continuing Saga of Complement Receptor Type 3 (CR3),” J. Clin Invest.: Vol 98, 1-2. 1996. Div of Hematology/Oncology Dept of Int. Med,  U of Michigan Med Ctr.* Quote: (p2) “In certain controlled clinical trials, the increased survival of patients receiving these immunostimulatory Beta-glucans has been reported.”

Immune Response – Macrophage Cell Production Increase : Burgaleta, C. and Golde, D.W.; “Effect of Glucan on Granulopoiesis and Macrophage Genesis in Mice”.  Cancer Research;  37:1739-1742; Jun 1977.*

Immune Response – Macrophage Cell Production Increase: Burgaleta C., Territo M.C., Quan C.G., Goide D.W.; Glucan activated macrophages: functional characteristics and surface morphology; J Reticuloendothel Soc 23: 195-204. 1978. Quote: “These studies indicate that glucan administration results in increased granulocyte and macrophage production….glucan as an immunotherapeutic agent can result in an increased number of available effector cells.”

Immune Response – Normalization: Chorvatovicova D., Navarova J., “Suppressing effects of glucan on micronuclei induced by cyclophosphamide in mice.” Mutat. Res., 282:147-150, 1992.

Immune response – Normalization: Ferencik M, Kotulova D, Masler L, Bergendi, L, Sandula J, Stefanovic J; “Modulatory effect of glucans on the functional and biochemical activities of guinea-pig macrophages.” Methods Find. Exp., Clin. Pharmacol. 8:163-166. 1986.

Immune response – Particulate vs Soluble: Ishibashi K, Miura NN, et al, “Relationship between the physical properties of Candida albicans cell well beta-glucan and activation of leukocytes in vitro,” Int Immunopharmacol 2(8):1109-22. Jul 2002. Quote: “Beta-glucan activated leukocytes significantly more effectively in a particulate than solubilized form in terms of TNF-alpha production by RAW 264.7 cells, hydrogen peroxide production by murine PEC and IL-8 production by human PBMC….These facts strongly suggested that the solubility and assembly of the components influence the immunopharmacological activities of 1,3-beta-D-glucans.”

Immune response – Potentiation: Czop, J.K., Valiante N.M., Janusz M.J.; “Phagocytosis of particulate activators of the human alternative complement pathway through monocyte beta-glucan receptors,” Prog Clin Biol Res 297: 287-296; Dept of Med, Harvard Med S, Boston, MA. 1989. Quote (p1): “Animal studies indicate that beta-glucans with 1,3-and/or 1,6-linkages are active pharmacologic agents that rapidly confer protection to a normal host against a variety of biological insults. The beta-glucan receptors provide a mechanism by which a heightened state of host responsiveness is initiated.”

Immune response – Potentiation: Hunter KW [U Nevada Reno], Fishcer GW, Sayles PC, Strictkland GT; “Levamisole: Potentiation of the primary immunoglobulin M antibody response in suckling rats.;” Immunopharmacology 3:117-127; 1981.

Immune Response – Small Particle Effectiveness: Hunter KW, Gault RA, Berner MD, “Preparation of microparticulate B-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for use in immune potentiation.” Letters in Applied Microbiology,” Vol 35 Issue 4, 267-271, October 2002 (commercially MG Beta Glucan). Quote“…there was evidence that macrophages, key target cells for the immunopharmacological activity of B-glucans, preferentially ingest particles in the 1-2-µ (micron) diameter size range.”

“Compared with the aggregated form of B-glucan, the B-glucan microparticles … are more effective at enhancing phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages following oral administration. Although both aggregated [5-100-µ micron diameter] and microparticulate [1-2-µ micron diameter] glucans enhanced peritoneal macrophage activation when administered orally in mice, the microparticulate glucan was significantly better than the aggregated form.”

Immune Response – Small Particle Effectiveness: Donzis B. A.; “Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses;” U.S. Patent 5702719; 1997. Quote: “The preferred particle size of the find grind glucan product is about 1.0 micron or less and more preferably, .20 microns or less.”

Immune Response – Small Particle Effectiveness: Donzis B. A.; “Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses;” U.S. Patent 5576015; 1996. Quote: “Upon oral administration, the smaller or finer particle sized glucan is more quickly dissolved in the gastrointestinal tract and consequently, more readily absorbed.”

Immune Response – Small Particle Effectiveness: Donzis B. A.; “Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses;” U.S. Patent 5705184; 1998.

Immune Response – Stimulation: DiLuzio N.R., et al., “Evaluation of the Mechanism of Glucan-Induced Stimulation of the Reticuloendothelial System”.  J. Reticuloendothelial Soc.; Soc.7: 731-742. 1970.

Immune Response – T Cell Enhancement: Di Renzo, L., Yefenof, E., Klein E., “The Function of human NK [Killer T] cells is enhanced by B-Glucan, a ligand of CR3 (CD11b/CD18)”.  Eur. J. Immunol., 21:1755-1758. 1991.

Immune Response Enhancement  – IL 1 & IL 2: Sherwood. E.R., et al., “Enhancement of Interleukin-1 and Interleukin-2 Production by Soluble Glucan,” International  Journal of Immunopharmacology.; 9:(3):261-267. 1987.

Immune Response Enhancement – IL 1: Rasmussen LT, Seljelid R, “Production of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin 1 by mouse peritoneal macrophages stimulated with beta-1,3-D-glucan derivatized plastic beads,” Scand J Immunol 26(6): 731-736. Dec 1987.*

Immune Response Enhancement – Oral Dietary Supplement:  Matthews, M.; “NSC-24 and NSC-100 – Exceptional Immune Enhancing Supplements,” Nutritional Supplement Immuno-Stimulant Bulletin, Vol I, No. 3. 1997.

Immune Response Enhancement : Spiros J.; Method for immune system activation by administration of a .beta.(1-3) glucan which is produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain R4; U.S. Patent 5504079; 1996.

Immune Response Enhancement Seljelid R., et al., “A Soluble .beta.-1,3-Glucan Derivative Potentiates the Cytostatic and Cytolytic Capacity of Mouse Peritoneal Macrophages In Vitro”. Immunopharmacol; 7: 69-73. 1984.*

Immune Response Enhancement Vetvicka V., Thornton B.P., Ross G.D.; “Soluble Beta-glucan Polysaccharide Binding to the Lectin Site of Neutrophil or Natural Killer Cell Complement Receptor Type 3 (CD11b/CD18) Generates a Primed State of the Receptor Capable of Mediating Cytotoxicity of iC3b-Opsonized Target Cells,”. Journal Clin Invest 98: 50-61. Div of Experimental Immuno and Immunopath, Dept Path, U of Louisville, KY.* 1996.  Quote: “This investigation showed that soluble CR3-specific polysaccharides such as beta-glucan induced a primed state of CR3 that could trigger killing of iC3b-target cells that were otherwise resistant to cytotoxicity.”

Immune Response Enhancement: – Oral Applications: Wyde, P., “Beta-1,3-glucan activity in mice: intraperitoneal and oral applications.” Baylor College of Medicine Research Report. 1989.

Quote: “This demonstration of bactericidal enhancement via oral dosing suggests an application for beta-1,3-glucan as a component in a combined modality with conventional anti-infective agents. Beta glucan, through the stimulation of host defense systems, creates a more supportive environment within the body to assist the primary killing action of the conventional agent.”

Immune Response Enhancement: Janusz M.J., Austen K.F., Czop J.K.; “Lysosomal enzyme release from human monocytes by particulate activators is mediated by beta-glucan inhibitable receptors,” J. Immunol 138: 3897-3901. 1987.*

Immune Response Enhancement: Kimura A., et al., “In Vitro Activation of Human Adherent Cells by a Glucan, Schizophyllan”.  J. Reticuloendothel.; Soc. 34: 1-11. 1983. Quote: “…Glucan-treated rats had significantly increased rates of phagocytosis and killing of Staphylococcus aureus immediately after infection…”

Immune Response Enhancement: Meira, D.A., et al; The Use of Glucan as Immunostimulant in the Treatment of Paracoccidioidomycosis; Am J. Trop Med Hyg 55(5), 496-503; 1996. Dept of Trop Dis, Dept of Microbio, State U of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Quote: “…glucan enhances the immune response through stimulation of macrophages by increasing their number, size, and function, stimulates secretion of lysozyme and TNF by activated macrophages, increases the phagocytosis of antigens, activates the formation of granulocyte and monocyte colonies, and factors increased activity of T and B lymphocytes, as well as complement activation.”

Immune Response Enhancement: Poutsiaka D.D., et al, “Cross-linking of the beta-glucan receptor on human monocytes results in interleukin-1 receptor antagonist but not interleukin-1 production,” Blood 82: 3695-3700 ; 1993. Dept of Med, New England Med Ctr, Boston, MA. Quote:“Because of their differential effects on cytokine production, beta-glucans may be used to therapeutic advantage in the diseases in which IL-1 is implicated.”*

Immune Response Enhancement: Rios-Hernandez M., Dos-Santos N.J., Silvia-Cardosa, Belle-Garciga J.L., Peddrosa M., “Immunopharamacological studies of beta(1-3)glucan-1, 3-glucan”, Arch. Med. Res. 25 (2): 179-180.  1994.*

Immune Response Enhancement: Sakurai T, Hashimoto K, et al; “Enhancement of murine alveolar macrophage functions by orally administered beta-glucan.” Int. J. Immunopharmacol. 14:821-830. 1992.

Immune Response Enhancement: Seljelid R., et al.,”In vivo activation of mouse macrophages with beta-1,3-D-glucan-derivatized plastic beads,” Scand J Immunol 21(6):601-605. Jun 1985.*

Immune Response Enhancement: Suzuki, Iwao, Tanaka, Hideki, Konoshita, Akira, Oikawa, Shozo, Osawa, Masumi and Yadomae.  “Effects of Orally Administered.beta.-Glucan on Macrophage Function in Mice”.  Toshiro, Journal of Immunopharmac; vol. 12, No. 6, pp. 675-684. 1990.

Immune Response Enhancement: Wooles and DiLuzio N.R.; “The Phagocytic and Proleferative Responses of the Reticuloendothelial System Following Glucan Administration”.  J. Reticuloendothelial..; Soc. 1: 169-169. 1964.

Immune Response Potentiation – B Cells: Czop J.K., Puglisi A.V., Miorandi D.Z., Austen K.F.; “Pertubation of beta-glucan receptors on human neutrophils initiates phagocytosis and leukotriene B4 production,” J. Immunol 141: 3170-3176. 1988.*

Immune Response Potentiator: Jordan, F.; “An Effective Immune Response Potentiator– Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall,” Macrophage Technologies Publication, pp 1-7; 1998.

Immune Response: Bodenbach B.; NSC-24™: An Extraordinary New Immune Enhancing Supplement; Health Perspectives, vol 2, no 2; 1996.

Immune Response: Bousquet M., Escoula L. et al; “Immunopharmacologic study in mice of 2 beta-1,3, beta-1,6 polysaccharides (scleroglucan and PSAT) on the activation of macrophages and T lymphocytes,” Ann Rech Vet 20: 165-173. 1989. Station of Pharmacologie-Toxicologie, INRA, Toulouse, France.* Quote: “…PSAT and scleroglucan favorably affect the non-specific host defense and cellular immune response in mice.”

Immune response: Macrophage stimulation: Czop J.K., Austen K.F.; “Generation of leukotrienes by human monocytes upon stimulation of their beta-glucan receptor during phagocytosis,” Proc Natl Acad Sci USA; 82: 2751-2755 1985.*

Immune System: Ber L., Gazella K., “Activate Your Immune System;” Impakt Communications, 1998.

Immunizations – Adjuvant: Hunter KW Jr, Berner VK, Sura ME; “Conjugation of protein antigen to microparticulate beta-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a new adjuvant for intradermal and oral immunizations,” Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, U of Nev Sch of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, USA. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol; PuMed 18677470; Epub Aug 2, 2008: Quote: “Our laboratory has prepared and characterized a novel microparticulate beta-glucan (MG)…we hypothesized that MG could serve as a vaccine adjuvant to enhance specific immune responses. …When used to immunize mice by the intradermal route, these conjugates enhanced the primary IgG antibody response to BSA in a manner comparable to the prototypic complete Freund’s adjuvant....These results suggest that protein antigens can be conjugated to MG via a carabondiimide linkage and that these conjugates provide an adjuvant effect for stimulating the antibody response to the protein antigens.”

Immunostimulatory Activity -: Hunter K, Washburn R, “Efficacy of topical antimicrobial acid and immunostimulatory B-Glucan in Animal Models of Cutaneous Infection,” U Nevada Medical School-Applied Res Grant, Aug 1998.  Quote: “…the B-glucans have been shown to activate macrophages to enhance their antimicrobial activity.  Our laboratory has developed preliminary evidence that B-1,3/1,6 glucans possesses immunostimulatory activity for macrophages in vitro, leading to secretion of the Th-1 cytokines IL-1 B, IL-12, and TNF-µ.”

Immunotherapy: Ning Y, et al, “B-glucan restores tumor-educated dendritic cell maturation to enhance antitumor immune responses.”  Int J Cancer, 1:138(11): 2713-23, June 1, 2016. PMID: 26773960Quote: “Treatment with β-glucan drastically decreased the levels of regulatory T (Treg) cells but increased the infiltration of macrophages, granulocytes and DCs in tumor masses, thus elicited Th1 differentiation and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses and led to a delay in tumor progression. These findings reveal that β-glucan can inhibit the regulatory function of TEDCs, therefore revealing a novel function for β-glucan in immunotherapy.”

Immunotherapy -: Tian J, Ma J, Ma K, etc, “B-Glucan enhances antitumor immune responses by regulating differentiation and function of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells.”  Eur J Immunonl, 2013 May;43(5):1220-30. doi. Quote: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in tumor-bearing hosts and play a major role in tumor-induced immunosuppression, which hampers effective immuno-therapeutic approaches. B-Glucans have been reported to function as potent immune-modulators to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses, which contribute to their antitumor property. …thereby leading to the delayed tumor progression.”

Immunotherapy – LiB, Cai Y, Qi C, etc., “Orally administered particulate beta-glucan modulates tumor-capturing dendritic cells and improves antitumor T-cell responses in cancer.”  Clin Cancer Res, 2010 Nov 1:16(21):5153-64. Quote: “IFN-y [interferon] production of tumor-infiltrating T cells and CTL responses were significantly enhanced on B-glucan treatment, which ultimately resulted in significantly reduced tumor burden. …These data highlight the ability of yeast-derived B-glucan to bridge innate and adaptive antitumor immunity and suggest that it can be used as an adjuvant for tumor immunotherapy.”

Immunotherapy: Akramiene D, Kondrotas A, Didziapetriene J, Kevelaitis E; “Effects of beta-glucans on the immune system.” Medicina (Kaunas). Dept of Physiology, Kaunas U of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithunia. 43(8):597-606; 2007. Quote: “Beta-glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharides….These substances increase host immune defense by activating complement system, enhancing macrophages and natural killer cell function.  beta-Glucans also show anticarcinogenic activity. They can prevent oncogenesis due to the protective effect against potent genotoxic carcinogens. As immunostimulating agent, which acts through the activation of macrophages and NK cell cytotoxicity, beta-glucan can inhibit tumor growth…reduce tumor proliferation, prevent tumor metastasis. beta-Glucan as adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy demonstrated the positive role in the restoration of hematopiesis [red blood cells] following by bone marrow injury.  Immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies is a novel strategy of cancer treatment. These [monoclonal] antibodies activate complement system and opsonize tumor cells with iC3b fragment. …tumor cells, as well as other host cells, lack beta-glucan as a surface component and cannot trigger complement receptor 3-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and initiate tumor-killing activity.  This mechanism [tumor-killing activity] could be induced in the presence of beta-glucans.

Immunotherapy:: Li B, Allendorf D, Hansen R, Marroquin J, Ding C, Cramer DE, Yan J; “Yeast beta-Glucan Amplifies Phagocyte Killing of iC3b-Opsonized Tumor Cells via Complement Receptor 3-Syk-Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway.” J Immunology: 1:177(3):1661-9. Tumor Immunobiology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY. Aug 2006. Quote: “Anti-tumor mAbs [monoclonal antibodies] hold promise for cancer therapy, but are relatively inefficient. …In this study, we report that tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of beta-glucan and an anti-tumor mAb show almost complete cessation of tumor growth. … beta-glucan, an agent without evident toxicity, may be used to amplify tumor cell killing and may open new opportunities in the immunotherapy of cancer.”

Immunotherapy: Hong F, Yan J, ”Mechanism by which orally administered beta-1,3-glucans enhance the tumoricidal activity of antitumor monoclonal antibodies in murine tumor models.”  J Immunol 173(2):797-806, Jul 15 2004. PMID 15240666. Quote: “Orally administered B-1,3-glucans were taken up by macrophages that transported them to spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. …Antitumor mAb [monoclonal antibodies] bind to tumors and activate complement, coating tumors with iC3b. Intravenously administered yeast beta-1,3;1,6-glucan functions as an adjuvant for antitumor mAb by priming the inactivated C3b (iC3b complement) receptors (CR3; CD11b/CD18) of circulating granulocytes [primarily neutrophils] , enabling CR3 to trigger cytotoxicity [emitted chemical killing] of iC3b-coated tumors. “

Impaired Immunity: Carrow, D.J. M.D.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “The following list includes benefits from the use of Beta 1,3-glucan supplementation: People who have impaired immunity from any cause including, but not limited to HIV infection; have a high occurrence of infectious diseases; have tumors and/or those undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy; are over forty who are concerned about the natural aging process or might have noticed a slowing down of immune reactivity; who are geriatric patients; and other with compromised immune disorders.”

In vitro studies reveal that bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages and human peripheral blood monocytes possess Beta-glucan receptors that mediate phagocytosis of glucan particles and induce release of proinflammatory mediators…


 

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