การทำงานในร่างกาย (Bio-Activity)

Biological activity: “The Biological activity of beta-glucans”; Minerva Medical; 100(3):237-245; Pub Med 19571787;  Jun 2009; Quote: “...Beta-glucans have studied for their hypocholesterolemic effects; these mechanisms include: reducing the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and bile acids by binding to glucans; shifting the liver from cholesterol syntheses to bile acid production; and fermentation by intestinal bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and inhibit hepatic cholesterol syntheses. …beta-1,3-glucans improve the body’s immune system defense against foreign invaders by enhancing the ability of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells to respond to and fight a wide range of challenges such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. …there is renewed interest in the potential usefulness of beta-glucan as a radioprotective drug for chemotherapy, radiation therapy and nuclear emergencies, particularly because glucan can be used not only as a treatment, but also as a prophylactic [taken in advance for protection].”

Beta Glucan BioActivity: Pacheco PWhite DSulchek T, “Effects of microparticle size and Fc density on macrophage phagocytosis.” PLoS One. 2013 Apr 22;8(4):e60989. PMID:23630577; PMCID:PMC363260 . Quote“The percentage of phagocytic macrophages was found to be strongly dependent on both the particle size and the particle Fc density. …Interaction with the smaller particles (0.5 µm and 1 µm) at a low Fc density resulted in a greater percentage of phagocytic macrophages than with high Fc density. …Therefore, larger microparticles (3 µm and 4.5 µm) may be more efficient at delivering a greater therapeutic payload to macrophages, but smaller opsonized microparticles (0.5 µm to 2 µm) can deliver bio-active substances to a greater percentage of the macrophage population.

Note: Fc is an antibody molecule known as the crystallizable fragment. µm = microns. Larger Particle sizes in this study were 3 to 4.5 µm (microns)   However, particles from 5 to 100+ µm (microns) are considered aggregated or agglomerated and sometimes referred to as globular due to increased size and reduced phagocytic activity..

 

Beta Glucan BioActivity: Zechner-Krpan V, Petravic-Tominac V, Galovic P, Galovic V, Filipovic-Grcic J, Srecec S, “Application of Different Drying Methods on B-Glucan Isolated from Spent Brewer’s Yeast Using Alkaline Procedure” University of Zagreb, Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, Vol 75, No 1 2010. Quote: The macrophage phagocytosis is more enhanced by microparticulate B-glucan than by its aggregated formBiological activity of B-glucan can be improved by reducing the size of its particles.  …The particles having 1-2 µm [microns] in diameter are optimally phagocytized by macrophages.”

 

Beta Glucan BioActivity: Champion JA, Walker A, Mitragotri S, “Role of particle size in phagocytosis of polymeric microspheres.” Pharmaceutical research 25: 1815–1821 2008.  PMIC 18373181, PMC 2793372.  Quote: “Particles possessing diameters of 2-3 microm exhibited maximal phagocytosis and attachment… . “

 

Beta Glucan BioActivity: Freitas Jr, RA, “15.4.3.1 Phagocytes, Phagocytosis, and the RES – Macrophages;” Nanomedicine, Volume IIA: Biocompatibility, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX 2003. Quote: “The presence and activity of phagocytes is particularly related to the presence of small particles. …Maximum stimulus occurs at average particle sizes in the 0.1-2.0 [micron] range… Human blood monocytes [macrophage precursors] readily ingest inert 0.39 micron particles, rarely ingest 1.52 micron particles, and never ingest 5.1 micron particles.”

Beta Glucan BioActivity: Jordan F, Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, “Method for preparing small particle size glucan in a dry material,” U.S. Patent 6,476,003. November 2002. Quote: “…The greater percentage phagocytosis demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage and the small particle size glucan’s ability to activate the immune system.”

Beta Glucan Extraction Processes: JS Bacon, VC Farmer, D Jones, F Taylor, “The glucan components of the cell wall of baker’s yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) considered in relation to its ultrastructure.” Biochemical Journal 09-01 1969.

Beta Glucan Phagocytosis: Vetvicka, V, “Beta Glucan, Natures Secret” , 3rd Edition, Self Published, pp153-154, 2015. Quote“…macrophages have glucan receptors the size of only several molecules. Yet they are able to phagocytose material of more than 20% of their own size.  It is apparent that, in the case of macrophages and phagocytosis, size really does not matter … some companies are selling micronized glucans that are often accompanied by claims that they are more bioavailable.  It might be true.”  [Note: The V Vetvicka’ position that beta glucan particle size does not matter in phagocytosis is the position found of only V Vetvicka based on extensive beta glucan’ phagocytosis research reviewed with several presented below.]

Beta Glucan Phagocytosis: Pacheco PWhite DSulchek T, “Effects of microparticle size and Fc density on macrophage phagocytosis.” PLoS One. 2013 Apr 22;8(4):e60989. PMID:23630577; PMCID:PMC363260 . Quote“The percentage of phagocytic macrophages was found to be strongly dependent on both the particle size and the particle Fc density. …Interaction with the smaller particles (0.5 µm and 1 µm) at a low Fc density resulted in a greater percentage of phagocytic macrophages than with high Fc density. …Therefore, larger microparticles (3 µm and 4.5 µm) may be more efficient at delivering a greater therapeutic payload to macrophages, but smaller opsonized microparticles (0.5 µm to 2 µm) can deliver bio-active substances to a greater percentage of the macrophage population.

Note: Fc is an antibody molecule known as the crystallizable fragment. µm = microns. Larger Particle sizes in this study were 3 to 4.5 µm (microns)   However, particles from 5 to 100+ µm (microns) are considered aggregated or agglomerated and sometimes referred to as globular due to increased size and reduced phagocytic activity..

 

Beta Glucan Phagocytosis: Zechner-Krpan V, Petravic-Tominac V, Galovic P, Galovic V, Filipovic-Grcic J, Srecec S, “Application of Different Drying Methods on B-Glucan Isolated from Spent Brewer’s Yeast Using Alkaline Procedure” University of Zagreb, Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, Vol 75, No 1 2010. Quote: The macrophage phagocytosis is more enhanced by microparticulate B-glucan than by its aggregated formBiological activity of B-glucan can be improved by reducing the size of its particles.  …The particles having 1-2 µm [microns] in diameter are optimally phagocytized by macrophages.”

 

Beta Glucan Phagocytosis: Champion JA, Walker A, Mitragotri S, “Role of particle size in phagocytosis of polymeric microspheres.” Pharmaceutical research 25: 1815–1821 2008.  PMIC 18373181, PMC 2793372.  Quote: “Particles possessing diameters of 2-3 microm exhibited maximal phagocytosis and attachment… . “

 

Beta Glucan Phagocytosis: Freitas Jr, RA, “15.4.3.1 Phagocytes, Phagocytosis, and the RES – Macrophages;” Nanomedicine, Volume IIA: Biocompatibility, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX 2003. Quote: “The presence and activity of phagocytes is particularly related to the presence of small particles. …Maximum stimulus occurs at average particle sizes in the 0.1-2.0 [micron] range… Human blood monocytes [macrophage precursors] readily ingest  [phagocytize] inert 0.39 micron particles, rarely ingest 1.52 micron particles, and never ingest 5.1 micron particles.”

Beta Glucan Phagocytisis: Jordan F, Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, “Method for preparing small particle size glucan in a dry material,” U.S. Patent 6,476,003. November 2002. Quote: “…The greater percentage phagocytosis demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage and the small particle size glucan’s ability to activate the immune system.”

Phagocytosis: Vetvicka, V, “Beta Glucan, Natures Secret” , 3rd Edition, Self Published, pp153-154, 2015. Quote: “…macrophages have glucan receptors the size of only several molecules. Yet they are able to phagocytose material of more than 20% of their own size.  It is apparent that, in the case of macrophages and phagocytosis, size really does not matter…” [Note: V Vetvicka’ position that beta glucan particle size does not matter in phagocytosis is the position found for only Vetvicka based on extensive beta glucan’ phagocytosis research reviewed with several presented below. Macrophages are generally 10-12 microns in diameter, indicating V Vetvicka appears to assume macrophage ability to phagocytize materials of 20% more or 12-15 microns in size.]

 

Phagocytosis: Pacheco PWhite DSulchek T, “Effects of microparticle size and Fc density on macrophage phagocytosis.” PLoS One. 2013 Apr 22;8(4):e60989. PMID:23630577; PMCID:PMC363260 . Quote“The percentage of phagocytic macrophages was found to be strongly dependent on both the particle size and the particle Fc density. …Interaction with the smaller particles (0.5 µm and 1 µm) at a low Fc density resulted in a greater percentage of phagocytic macrophages than with high Fc density. …Therefore, larger microparticles (3 µm and 4.5 µm) may be more efficient at delivering a greater therapeutic payload to macrophages, but smaller opsonized microparticles (0.5 µm to 2 µm) can deliver bio-active substances to a greater percentage of the macrophage population.  Note: Fc is an antibody molecule known as the crystallizable fragment. µm = microns. Larger Particle sizes in this study were 3 to 4.5 µm (microns)   However, particles from 5 to 100+ µm (microns) are considered aggregated or agglomerated and sometimes referred to as globular due to increased size and reduced phagocytic activity.

Phagocytosis: Zechner-Krpan V, Petravic-Tominac V, Galovic P, Galovic V, Filipovic-Grcic J, Srecec S, “Application of Different Drying Methods on B-Glucan Isolated from Spent Brewer’s Yeast Using Alkaline Procedure” University of Zagreb, Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, Vol 75, No 1 2010. Quote: The macrophage phagocytosis is more enhanced by microparticulate B-glucan than by its aggregated formBiological activity of B-glucan can be improved by reducing the size of its particles.  …The particles having 1-2 µm [microns] in diameter are optimally phagocytized by macrophages.”

Phagocytosis: Champion JA, Walker A, Mitragotri S, “Role of particle size in phagocytosis of polymeric microspheres.”  Pharmaceutical research 25: 1815–1821 2008.  PMIC 18373181, PMC 2793372.  Quote: “Particles possessing diameters of 2-3 microm exhibited maximal phagocytosis and attachment… . “

Phagocytosis: Freitas Jr, RA, “15.4.3.1 Phagocytes, Phagocytosis, and the RES – Macrophages;” Nanomedicine, Volume IIA: Biocompatibility, Landes Bioscience, Georgetown, TX 2003. Quote: “The presence and activity of phagocytes is particularly related to the presence of small particles. …Maximum stimulus occurs at average particle sizes in the 0.1-2.0 [micron] range… Human blood monocytes [macrophage precursors] readily ingest inert 0.39 micron particles, rarely ingest 1.52 micron particles, and never ingest 5.1 micron particles.”

Phagocytosis:: Hunter KW, Gault RA, Berner MD, “Preparation of microparticulate B-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for use in immune potentiation.” Letters in Applied Microbiology,” Vol 35 Issue 4, 267-271, PubMed 123586685, October 2002 (commercially MG Beta Glucan) Quote“…there was evidence that macrophages, key target cells for the immunopharmacological activity of B-glucans, preferentially ingest particles in the 1-2-µ (micron) diameter size range. …This microparticulate beta-glucan …following oral administration at 0.1 mg kg(-1) for 14 d, enhanced phagocytosis of mouse peritoneal macrophages significantly better than did aggregated beta-glucan particles.”

Phagocytosis: Jordan F, Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, “Method for preparing small particle size glucan in a dry material,” U.S. Patent 6,476,003. November 2002. Quote: “…The greater percentage phagocytosis demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage and the small particle size glucan’s ability to activate the immune system.”

Phagocytosis: Brandwood A, et al, “Phagocytosis of carbon particles by macrophages in vitro.” Biomaterials, 13(9):646-8, 1992. PMID 1391413. Quote“Particles up to 20 microns diameter were phagocytosed.  Larger particles were not phagocytosed.”

Phagocytosis: Tabata Y, Ikada Y, “Effect of the Size and Surface-Charge of Polymer Microspheres on Their Phagocytosis by Macrophage.”  Biomaterials 9: 356–362.1988. PMID 3214660. Quote: “It was found that the maximal phagocytosis of polystyrene and phenylated polyacrolein microspheres took place when their size was in the range 1.0-2.0 microns.”


 

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