การรักษาด้วยการฉายแสง (Radiation)

Radiation Protection: Tabele F, et al: “Radioprotective Effect of Beta D-Glucan and Vitamin E on Gamma Irradiated Mouse,” J Clin Diagn Res,; PMID:28384957   PMCID: PMC5376888, Feb 11 2017. Quote: “It is shown that beta-D-glucan is an immunologic system booster with radioprotectory effects. Radioprotectors are chemical components that can alleviate biological damage produced by ionizing radiation.”

Radiation Therapy:  Sima P, Vetvicka V, et al, “Effects of glucan on bone marrow.” Ann Transl Med. 2014 Feb; 2(2)18. PMC 4202472; Quote:“The extensive research studying various effects of glucans on bone marrow showed significant restoration of both lymphopenia and neutropenia. … glucan might be widely used as radioprotectant that could mitigate the biological effects of radiation exposure both in cases of radiation accidents or in medically used irradiation. …they [beta glucans] are inexpensive, generally free from side effects and capable of significant protection against bone marrow damage through restoration of bone marrow cell production. “

Radiation Therapy: Hofer M, Pospisil M, “Modulation of animal and human hematopoiesis by B-glucans: a review.” Molecules, Sep 15;16(9): 7969-79. PubMed 21921869. 2011. Quote: “B-glucans have been shown to support murine hematopoiesis suppressed by ionizing radiation or cytotoxic anti-cancer therapy. They also enhance stem cell homing and engraftment.  Note: “Hematopoiesis” is the process of creating new blood cells in the body. All blood cells start off as hematopoietic stem cells, and then specialize or differentiate into myeloid cells including erythrocytes, megakaryocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils, or eosinophils; or lymphoid cells including T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes.

Radiation Therapy: “The Biological activity of beta-glucans”; Minerva Medical; 100(3):237-245; Pub Med 19571787;  Jun 2009; Quote: “…Beta-glucans have studied for their hypocholesterolemic effects; these mechanisms include: reducing the intestinal absorption of cholesterol and bile acids by binding to glucans; shifting the liver from cholesterol syntheses to bile acid production; and fermentation by intestinal bacteria to short-chain fatty acids, which are absorbed and inhibit hepatic cholesterol syntheses. …beta-1,3-glucans improve the body’s immune system defense against foreign invaders by enhancing the ability of macrophages, neutrophils and natural killer cells to respond to and fight a wide range of challenges such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. …there is renewed interest in the potential usefulness of beta-glucan as a radioprotective drug for chemotherapy, radiation therapy and nuclear emergencies, particularly because glucan can be used not only as a treatment, but also as a prophylactic [taken in advance for protection].”

Radiation and Radiotherapy:  Akramiene D, Kondrotas A, Didziapetriene J, Kevelaitis E; “Effects of beta-glucans on the immune system.” Medicina (Kaunas). Dept of Physiology, Kaunas U of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithunia. 43(8):597-606; 2007. Quote: “Beta-glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharides….These substances increase host immune defense by activating complement system, enhancing macrophages and natural killer cell function.  beta-Glucans also show anticarcinogenic activity. They can prevent oncogenesis [normal cell transformation to cancer cells] due to the protective effect against potent genotoxic carcinogens [chemical capable of causing cancer]. As immunostimulating agent, which acts through the activation of macrophages and NK cell cytotoxicity, beta-glucan can inhibit tumor growth…reduce tumor proliferation, prevent tumor metastasis. beta-Glucan as adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy demonstrated the positive role in the restoration of hematopiesis [red blood cells] following by bone marrow injury.  Immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies is a novel strategy of cancer treatment. These [monoclonal] antibodies activate complement system and opsonize tumor cells with iC3b fragment. …tumor cells, as well as other host cells, lack beta-glucan as a surface component and cannot trigger complement receptor 3-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and initiate tumor-killing activity.  This mechanism [tumor-killing activity] could be induced in the presence of beta-glucans.

Radiation – Radiotherapy: Gu YH, Takagi Y, et al; “Enhancement of radioprotection and anti-tumor immunity by yeast-derived beta-glucan in mice,” J Med Food. 8(2) 154-8; Dept of Radiological Technology, Suzuka U of Med Sc, Suzuka, Japan, Summer 2005. Quote: Intraperitoneal injection of beta-glucan was shown to greatly delay mortality in mice exposed to whole-body X-ray radiation and tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. …Augmented immunological activity as seen in increased NK (natural killer) and LAK (lymphokine-activated killer) activity by beta-glucan seems to play a role in preventing secondary infections associated with irradiation and probably contributes to the attenuated [reduced] tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice through enhanced anti-tumour immunity.  These results suggest that beta-glucan may be a promising adjunct treatment for cancer patients receiving radiotherapy.”

Radiation (Irradiation): Daniel E Cramer, Daniel J Allendorf, Jarek T Baran, Richard Hansen, Jose Marroquin, Bing Li, Janina Ratajczak,Mariusz Z Ratajczak, and Jun YanBeta-glucan enhances complement-mediated hematopoietic recovery after bone marrow injury;”Blood; DOI 10.1182. Tumor Immunobiology Program and Stem Cell Biology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA. Sept 2005. Quote: “…Myelotoxic injury in the bone marrow (BM) as a consequence of total body irradiation (TBI) or granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) mobilization results in the deposition of iC3b on BM [bone marrow] stroma [cell framework]. … Taken together, these observations suggest a novel role for C, CR3, and Beta glucan in the restoration of hematopoiesis [cell formation]following injury.”

NOTE: Mice were treated for 12 days with beta glucan and exposed to a sublethal dose of radiation. The beta glucan treated animals had approximately 40 percent more cell formation units in the spleen than untreated mice. When beta glucan was given orally, survival of animals receiving a lethal dose of radiation after stem cell transplantation was significantly enhanced. Forty days following radiation exposure, approximately 30 percent of mice treated with beta glucan survived compared with only 3 percent of untreated animals.

Radiation: Gu YH, Takagi Y, et al; “Enhancement of radioprotection and anti-tumor immunity by yeast-derived beta-glucan in mice,” J Med Food. 8(2) 154-8; Dept of Radiological Technology, Suzuka U of Med Sc, Suzuka, Japan, Summer 2005. Quote: Intraperitoneal injection of beta-glucan was shown to greatly delay mortality in mice exposed to whole-body X-ray radiation and tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. …Augmented immunological activity as seen in increased NK (natural killer) and LAK (lymphokine-activated killer) activity by beta-glucan seems to play a role in preventing secondary infections associated with irradiation and probably contributes to the attenuated [reduced] tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice through enhanced anti-tumour immunity.  These results suggest that beta-glucan may be a promising adjunct treatment for cancer patients receiving radiotherapy.”

Radiation – Allendorf D.J., Knudsen G., Elliott T., et al, “Oral Whole Glucan Particles Beta Glucan Treatment Accelerates Myeloid Recovery and Survival after Radiation Exposure.” Center for Mind-Body Medicine Comprehensive Care Symposium, April 2003. Quote: Oral treatment with whole glucan particles may be a useful therapeutic intervention following radiation exposure to accelerate myeloid [bone marrow] recovery and increase survival after radiation exposure.”

Radiation: Patchen M.L., Vaudrain T, Correira H, Martin T, Reese D, “In vitro and in vivo hematopoietic activities of Betafectin PGG-glucan.”, Exp Hematol, 26(13):1247-54. Dec 1998.

Radiation: Patchen M.L; Mork AC, Helmke RJ, Martinez JR, Michalek MT, Zhang GH, “Effects of particulate and soluble(1,3)-beta glucans on Ca2+ influx in NR8383 alveolar macrophages,” Immunopharmacology, 40(1):77-89. Dept of Pediatrics, U of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, Jul 1998. Quote: “Benefectin PGG-Glucan, a beta-(1,6) branched beta-(1,3) glucan purified from the cell walls of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, has been shown to synergize the myeloid growth factors in vitro and to enhance hematopoietic [formation of blood cells] recovery in myelosuppressed [bone marrow suppression] mice and primates. “

Radiation: Patchen M.L. [V Chrm, Dept of Surg, U of Washington], et al, “Mast Cell Growth Factor(c-kit Ligand) in Combination with Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor and Interleulin-3: in vivo Hemopoietic effects in Irradiated Ice compared to in vivo effects”, Biotherapy; vol. 7. pp. 13-26. 1994.

Radiation: Patchen M.L, Brook I, Elliott TB, Jackson WE, “Adverse effects of pefloxacin in irradiated C3H/HeN mice: correction with glucan therapy.”, Antimicrob Agents Chemotherapy, Dept. of Experimental Hematology, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute (AFRRI) , Bethesda, Maryland, Sept. 1993.

Radiation: Patchen M.L, Gallin EK, Green SW, “Comparative effects of particulate and soluble glucan on macrophages of C3H/HeN and C3H/HeJ mice,” Int J Immunopharmacol, 14(2):173-83; Dept of Physiology, AFRRI, Feb 1992.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Jackson W; “Survival  enhancement and hemopoietic regeneration following radiation exposure, therapeutic approach using glucan and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor [G-CSF]. “Exp.  Hematol. 18:1042-1048. 1990.

Quote: “Likewise, although both glucan and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) alone enhanced survival following an 8-Gy radiation exposure, greatest survival was observed in mice treated with both agents. These studies suggest that glucan, a macrophage activator, can synergize the G-CSF to further accelerate hemopoietic [formation of blood cells] regeneration  and increase survival following radiation-induced myelosuppression [bone marrow suppression].”

Radiation: Patchen M.L.; “Radioprotective effect of oral administration of beta-1,3-glucan,” Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Institute, Bethesda, MD Research Report, 1989.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Jackson W; “Postirradiation glucan administration enhances the radioprotective effects of WR-2721.“Radiat. Res. 117:59-69. 1989.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Bowers GJ, Hirsch EF, Fink MP, “Glucan enhances survival in an intraabdominal infection model,” J Surg Res, 47(2):183-8. Edward F. Hebert S of Medicine. Aug 1989.

Radiation: Patchen Ml, Chirigos MA, Brook I, “Use of glucan and other immunopharmacological agents in the prevention and treatment of acute radiation injuries,” Fundam Appl Toxicol, 11(4):573-4. AFRRI, Nov 1988.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., D’Alesandro M.M., Brook I., Blakely W.F. McVittie T.J.; “Glucan: Mechanisms Involved in Its ‘Radioprotective’ Effect”. J Leuc Biol.; 42:95-105. 1987.

Quote: “These results suggest that early after irradiation glucan may mediate [convey] its radioprotection by enhancing resistance to microbial invasion via mechanisms not necessarily predicated on hemopoietic [formation of blood cells] recovery. …glucan can also function as an effective free radical scavenger. Because macrophages have been shown to selectively phagocytize [ingest] and sequester[store] glucan, the possibility that these specific cells may be protected by virtue of glucan’s scavenging ability is also suggested.”

Radiation: Pachen ML, MacVittie TJ, “Comparative effects of soluble and particulate glucans on survival in irradiated mice,” J Biol Response Mod 5(1):45-60.  Experimental Hematology Dept, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst, Bethesda, MD. Feb 1986.

Quote: “Both glucan-P and glucan-F enhanced the recovery of peripheral blood white cell numbers, platelet numbers, and hematocrit [% of volume of packed red blood cells in a blood sample] values.  In addition, both agents increased endogenous pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell numbers in sublethally irradiated mice.”

Radiation: Patchen M.L., McVittie T.J.; “Stimulated Hemopeiesis and Enhanced Survival Following Glucan Treatment in Sublethally and Lethally Irradiated Mice”. Int. J. Immunopharmac; 7: 923-932. 1985.

Radiation: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Wathen L; “Effects of pre- and post-irradiation glucan treatment on pluripotent stem cells, granulocyte, macrophage and erythroid progenitor cells and hemopoietic stromal cells.” Experientia. 40:1240-1244. 1984.

Radiation: Patchen M.L, MacVittie T.J.,”Dose-dependent responses of murine pluripotent stem cells and myeloid and erythroid progenitor cells following administration of immunomodulating agent glucan.” Immunopharmacology, 5(4):303-13, Apr 1983.

Quote: “The hemopoietic effects produced by six different doses of a commercially available glucan preparation were investigated….bone marrow pluripotent stem cells (CFU-s) content increased…In the spleen, all aspects of hemopoiesis [formation of blood cells] increased after glucan administration.”

Radiation: Patchen M.L., McVittie T.J.; Temporal Response of Murine Pluripotent Stem Cells and Myeloid and Erythroid Progenitor Cells to Low-dose Glucan Treatment. Acta Hemat; 70:281-288.  Experimental Hematology Dept, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Insti, Bethesda, MD. 1983.

Quote: “Clearly, there are numerous possible uses for an agent such as glucan, which is a potent stimulator of hemopoietic activity. Currently, we [U.S. Armed Services] are using glucan to enhance hemopoietic proliferation in conjunction with hemopoietic injury induced by radiation.”

Radiation: Patchen M.L., Lotzova E.; Modulation of murine hemopoiesis by glucan; Exp Hermatol 8: 409-422, 1980.

Radiation – White Blood Cell – Recovery: Pachen ML, MacVittie TJ, “Comparative effects of soluble and particulate glucans on survival in irradiated mice,” J Biol Response Mod 5(1):45-60.  Experimental Hematology Dept, Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst, Bethesda, MD. PMID 3958734 Feb 1986. Quote: “Both glucan-P[articulate] and glucan-F enhanced the recovery of peripheral blood white cell numbers, platelet numbers, and hematocrit values.  In addition, both agents increased endogenous pluripotent hemopoietic stem cell numbers in sublethally irradiated mice.”

Radiation: Carrow, D.J. M.D.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend  Letter; June 1996. Quote: “The following list includes benefits from the use of Beta 1,3-glucan supplementation: People who have impaired immunity from any cause …; have a high occurrence of infectious diseases; have tumors and/or those undergoing chemotherapy or radiation therapy; are over forty who are concerned about the natural aging process or might have noticed a slowing down of immune reactivity; who are geriatric patients; and other with compromised immune disorders.”

Radiation Recovery: Popisil, et al., “Glucan Induced Hemopoietic Recovery in Gamma-Irradiated Mice”.  Experientia; 38: 1232-1234. 1982.

Radiation: Hemopoietic Regeneration: Patchen M.L., MacVittie T, Jackson W; “Survival  enhancement and hemopoietic regeneration following radiation exposure, therapeutic approach using glucan and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor. “Exp.  Hematol. 18:1042-1048. 1990.


 

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