Adjuvant – Flu Vaccine: Wang M, Yang R, et al, “Improvement of immune response to influenza vaccine (H5N1) by sulfated yeast beta glucan,” Int J Biol Macromol, 93(Pt A) 203-207. PubMed 27339320. June 23, 2016. Quote: “The adjuvant activity of … glucan from saccharomyces cerevisiae (GSC) was researched…with inactivated H5N1 vaccine. The research showed that GSC could significantly enhance lymphocyte [white blood cell] proliferation, effectively increase the percentage of CD4*T Cells, decrease the percentage of CD8*T Cells and elevate the CD4/CD8 ratio, enhance the Hl antibody titre, and promote the production of IL-2, INF-y, IL4 and IL-6 at medium level. …GSC could be used as an effective immune adjuvant for an inactivated H5N1 vaccine. Note: GSC is beta 1,3/1,6 glucan. CD4 and CD8 are T Helper Cells. IL2-cytokine white immune cell regulator. IL4-induces differentiation to Th2 cells.
Adjuvant: Aleem E, “B-Glucans and their applications in cancer therapy: focus on human studies,” Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 13(5):709-19, Jun 2013. Quote: β-glucans have been used as adjuvant therapy in clinical trials, mainly in the Far East, with a positive effect on patients’ survival and quality of life. The mechanism of action is suggested to be through its stimulation of the immune system.
Adjuvant: Qi C, Cai Y, Ding, Li B, Kloecker G, Qian K, Vasilakos J, Saijo S, Iwakura Y, Yannelli JR, Yan J; “Differential pathways regulating innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses by particulate.” Div of Hermatology/Oncology, Dept of Medicine, James Graham Brown Ctr, U of Louisville, KY; Blood;117(25):6825-36; Jun 23, 2011: “B-glucans have been reported to function as a potent adjuvant to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. …Here we show that yeast-derived B-glucan activated dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages)….Activated DCs by particulate B-glucan promoted Th1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte priming and differentiation in vitro. Treatment of orally administered yeast-derived particulate B-glucan elicited potent antitumor immune responses and drastically down-regulated immunosuppressive cells, leading to the delayed tumor progression.” Note: Type 1 T helper (Th1) cells produce interferon-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2, and Lymphotoxin-alpha (formerly known as tumor necrosis factor – beta or TNF-β), which activate macrophages and are responsible for cell-mediated immunity and phagocyte-dependent protective responses.
Adjuvant – Zechner-Krpan V, Petravic-Tominac V, GrBa Slobodan, Pnaikota-Krbavcic I, Vidovic L, “Biological Effects of Yeast B-Glucans,” Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 2010, Vol 75, No.4 (149-158). Quote: B-Glucans work, in part, by stimulating the innate immune mechanism to fight a range of foreign challenges and could be used as an adjuvant, in combination with anti-infective or antineoplastic agents, radiotherapy, an a range of topical agents and nutrients.” [Note: “antineoplastic agents”inhibit the maturation and proliferation of malignant cells including chemotherapy drugs]
Adjuvant – Immunizations: Hunter KW Jr, Berner VK, Sura ME; “Conjugation of protein antigen to microparticulate beta-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae: a new adjuvant for intradermal and oral immunizations,” Dept of Microbiology and Immunology, U of Nev Sch of Medicine, Reno, NV 89557, USA. Appl Microbiol Biotechnol; PuMed 18677470; Epub Aug 2, 2008: Quote: “Our laboratory has prepared and characterized a novel microparticulate beta-glucan (MG)…we hypothesized that MG could serve as a vaccine adjuvant to enhance specific immune responses. …When used to immunize mice by the intradermal route, these conjugates enhanced the primary IgG antibody response to BSA in a manner comparable to the prototypic complete Freund’s adjuvant....These results suggest that protein antigens can be conjugated to MG via a carabondiimide linkage and that these conjugates provide an adjuvant effect for stimulating the antibody response to the protein antigens.”
Adjuvant – Hyperbaric oxygen: Guzel S, Sunamak O, AS A, Celik V, Ferahman M, Nuri MM, Gazioglu E, Atukeren P, Mutlu O; “Effects of hyperbaric oxygen and Pgg-glucan on ischemic colon anastomosis.” World J Gastroenterol: 7:12(9):1421-5. Mar 2006. Quote: “… Here we analyzed the effects of hyperbaric oxygen and beta-glucan on colon anastomoses in ischemic condition. … CONCLUSION: Hyperbaric oxygen and glucan improve healing in ischemic colon anastomoses [surgical connection of two parts of the colon together] by anti-microbic, immune stimulating properties and seem to act synergistically when combined together.
Adjuvant – Antibiotics: Browder IW., Williams D., Sherwood E., McNamee R., Jones E., DiLuzio N., “Synergistic effect of nonspecific immunostimulation and antibiotics in experimental peritonitis”, Surgery 102 (2): 206-214. 1987.
Adjuvant – Antibiotics: Tzianabos AO, Cisnerol RL, et al; “Protection against intraabdominal sepsis by two polysaccharide immonumodulators (Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan), J Infect Dis, 178:1,200-6. 1998.Quote: “These data demonstrate the usefulness of [Beta 1,3/1,6 glucan]… in preventing experimental intraabdominal sepsis…and may represent a new adjunct to antibiotic regimens currently used to prevent clinical cases of this disease”
Adjuvant:-Antibiotics Tzianabos AO, Cisneros RL; “Prophylaxis with the immunomodulator PGG glucan enhances antibiotic efficacy in rats infected with antibiotic-resistant bacteria,”Ann NY Acad Sci 797: 285-287; Oct 1996.* Quote: “Results of these studies demonstrated that prophylaxis with PGG glucan in combination with antibiotics provided enhanced protection against lethal challenge with Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus aureus as compared with the use of antibiotics alone.”
Adjuvant-Anti-infective Agents: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: “Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same.” U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: “The use of soluble and insoluble beta glucans alone or as vaccine adjuvants for viral and bacterial antigens has been shown in animal models to markedly increase resistance to a variety of bacterial, fungal, protozoan and viral infections.”
Adjuvant-Anti-infective Agents: Wyde, P., “Beta-1,3-glucan activity in mice: intraperitoneal and oral applications.” Baylor College of Medicine Research Report. 1989.
Quote: “This demonstration of bactericidal enhancement via oral dosing suggests an application for beta-1,3-glucan as a component in a combined modality with conventional anti-infective agents. Beta glucan, through the stimulation of host defense systems, creates a more supportive environment within the body to assist the primary killing action of the conventional agent.”
Adjuvant – Chemotherapy – Chen J, et al, “The application of fungal B-glucans for the treatment of colon cancer.” Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2013 Jun;13(5):725-30. Jun 2013. PMID:23293888 Quote: Beta-glucans can also have synergistic effects with chemotherapeutic agents and other immune stimulators, and an innovative strategy is to use beta-glucans to deliver nanoparticles containing chemotherapeutic agents to the site of the colon cancer and, thus, improve the therapeutic efficacy.
Adjuvant – Sener G, Sert G, Ozer SA, Arbak S, Uslu B, Gedik N, Avanoglu-Dulger G; “Pressure ulcer-induced oxidative organ injury is ameliorated by beta-glucan treatment in rats.” Int Immunopharmacol:6(5):724-32; Marmara U, Sch of Pharmacy, Dept Pharmacology, Div Biochemistry; Epub Nov 2005; May 2006. Quote: “Pressure ulcers (PU) cause morphological and functional alterations in the skin and visceral organs. … Local treatment with beta-glucan inhibited the increase in MDA and MPO levels and the decrease in GSH in the skin induced by (PU), … systemic treatment prevented the damage in the visceral organs. Significant increases in creatinine, BUN, ALT, AST, LDH and collagen levels in PU [Pressure Ulcers] group were prevented by beta-glucan treatment. …Tissue injury was decreased. …Thus, supplementing geriatric and neurologically impaired patients with adjuvant therapy of beta-glucan may have some benefits for successful therapy and improving quality of life.”
Adjuvant : Mansell P.W.A., Rowden G., Hammer C.; Clinical experiences with the use of glucan. Chirigos MA, ed.; Immune Modulation and Control of Neoplasia by Adjuvant Therapy. Raven Press, New York 255-280; 1978.
Adjuvant: Benach J.L., et al., “Glucan as an adjuvant for a murine Babesia microti immunization trial,” Infection and Immunity, 35(3):947-951. 1982. Quote: “These observations demonstrate that glucan is an effective adjuvant in enhancing immunity to murine babesiosis.”
Adjuvant: Ber L., “Yeast-derived beta-1,3-D-glucan: An adjuvant concept,” American Journal of Natural Medicine; Vol 4, No. 9, Nov 1997.
Adjuvant: Jamas S., Easson D., Ostroff G.R.; “Glucan drug delivery system and adjuvant,” U.S.Patent 5607677. Issued March 4, 1997.*
Adjuvant: Lahnborg G., Hedstrom K.G., Nord C.E.; “The Effect of Glucan – A Host Resistance Activator and Ampicillin on Experimental Intraabdominal Sepsis”. Journal of Reticuloendothelial Society. 32: 347-353. 1982.* Quote: “It is concluded that glucan, in combination with ampicillin, has a significant effect on the survival rate of rats with induced peritonitis, probably by enhancing the activities of the reticuloendothelial system, an important part of the total host resistance.”
Adjuvant: Stewart C.C., et al., “Preliminary Observations on the Effect of Glucan in Combination with Radiation and Chemotherapy in Four Murine Tumors”, Cancer Treat. Prep.; 62: 1867-72. 1978. Quote: “The efficacy of glucan in combination with BCNU chemotherapy was measured using the disseminated AKR transplantable leukemia; the combination yielded a high level of cures compared to no survival for either agent alone.”
Adjuvant: Williams D.L. ,et al; “Immunization against Trypanosoma cruizi: adjuvant effect of glucan.” Int. J. Immunophar. 11:403-410. 1989.
Adjuvants: Audibert FM, Lise LD; “Adjuvants: Current status , clinical perspectives, and future prospects;” Immunol. Today 14:281-284; 1993.