ขนาดอนุภาค

Beta Glucan Microparticles: Baert K, et al, “Duality of B-glucan microparticles: antigen carrier and immunostimulants,” Int J Nanomedicine. 11: 2463–2469, May 31, 2016. PMCID:PMC 4898424. Quoteβ-glucan microparticles (GPs) are emerging microparticles known for their safety, immunogenicity, and high antigen encapsulation efficiency. These promising antigen carriers are derived from the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s yeast).  The resulting GPs [B-glucan microparticles] were hollow and porous biomimetic 2–5 µm [micron] particles consisting of >85% β-1,3-D-glucan polymers (β-glucans), ~2% chitin, and <1% lipids and proteins, with the rest being mostly ash and moisture.

Beta Glucan Particle Size – Smaller more Effective: Donzis B. A.; Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses; U.S. Patent 5576015; 1996. Quote: “Upon oral administration, the smaller or finer particle sized glucan is more quickly dissolved in the gastrointestinal tract and consequently, more readily absorbed.”

Beta Glucan BioActivity:: Vetvicka, V, “Beta Glucan, Natures Secret” , 3rd Edition, Self Published, pp153-154, 2015. Quote“ … some companies are selling micronized glucans that are often accompanied by claims that they are more bioavailable.  It might be true.”

Beta Glucan Micronization: See Beta Glucan Particle Size and Beta Glucan Microparticles

Micronized Particulate: Berner VK, duPre S, Redelman D, Hunter KW, “Microparticulate B-glucan vaccine conjugates phagocytized by dendritic cells activate both naive CD4 and CD8 T cells in vitro,” Cellular Immunology, ( http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celimm.2015.10.007 ) Nov 2 2015; U of Nevada School of Medicine, Dept of Microbiology .PMID:26549577  Quote: Microparticulate β-glucan (MG) conjugated to vaccine antigen has been shown to serve as an effective adjuvant in vivo.

Micronized Particulate: Pacheco PWhite DSulchek T, “Effects of microparticle size and Fc density on macrophage phagocytosis.” PLoS One. 2013 Apr 22;8(4):e60989. PMID:23630577; PMCID:PMC363260 . Quote“The percentage of phagocytic macrophages was found to be strongly dependent on both the particle size and the particle Fc density. …Interaction with the smaller particles (0.5 µm and 1 µm) at a low Fc density resulted in a greater percentage of phagocytic macrophages than with high Fc density. …Therefore, larger microparticles (3 µm and 4.5 µm) may be more efficient at delivering a greater therapeutic payload to macrophages, but smaller opsonized microparticles (0.5 µm to 2 µm) can deliver bio-active substances to a greater percentage of the macrophage population.

Note: Fc is an antibody molecule known as the crystallizable fragment. µm = microns. Larger Particle sizes in this study were 3 to 4.5 µm (microns)   However, particles from 5 to 100+ µm (microns) are considered aggregated or agglomerated and sometimes referred to as globular due to increased size and reduced phagocytic activity.

Micronized Particulate: Champion JA, Walker A, Mitragotri S, “Role of particle size in phagocytosis of polymeric microspheres.” Pharmaceutical research 25: 1815–1821 2008.  PMIC 18373181, PMC 2793372.  Quote: “Particles possessing diameters of 2-3 microm exhibited maximal phagocytosis and attachment… . “

Micronized Particulate: Hunter KW Jr, Gault RA, Berner MD; “Preparation of microparticulate beta-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for use in immune potentiation,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Letters of Applied Microbiology 35(4) 267-71; 2002; PMD 12358685; [mu=micron] Quote: … a homogeneous preparation of 1-2-mu diameter beta-glucan-containing particles was made from alkali- and acid-insoluble yeast cell wall material. This microparticulate beta-glucan remained in suspension longer and, following oral administration at 0.1 mg kg(-1) for 14 d, enhanced phagocytosis of mouse peritoneal macrophages significantly better than did aggregated beta-glucan particles. … A microparticulate form of beta-glucan that remains in suspension longer for pharmaceutical applications and has superior immune potentiation characteristics has been developed. [0.1 mg kg(-1) = 7.5 mg per day for a 165 lb person].

 

Micronized Particulate: Tabata Y, Ikada Y, “Effect of the Size and Surface-Charge of Polymer Microspheres on Their Phagocytosis by Macrophage.”  Biomaterials 9: 356–362.1988. PMID 3214660. Quote: “It was found that the maximal phagocytosis ofpolystyrene and phenylated polyacrolein microspheres took place when their size was in the range 1.0-2.0 microns.”

Microorganisms: Berner VK, duPre S, Redelman D, Hunter KW, “Microparticulate B-glucan vaccine conjugates phagocytized by dendritic cells activate both naive CD4 and CD8 T cells in vitro,” Cellular Immunology, ( http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celimm.2015.10.007 ) Nov 2 2015; U of Nevada School of Medicine, Dept of Microbiology.PMID:26549577 Quote: “The interaction between B-glucan and its receptors serves as an activating signal that promotes anti-fungal immunity, but fungal B-glucan also has a long history of use as an adjuvant to promote immune responses to tumors and other microorganismsMicroparticulate B-glucan (MG) was shown to exhibit adjuvant activity when conjugated to a test vaccine antigen. ….Recent studies have confirmed that B-glucan particles can be used to deliver vaccine antigen for oral immunization.

Microparasitic Diseases : DiLuzio N.R. and Williams D.L.,  “ The Roll of Glucan in the Prevention and Modification of Microparasitic Diseases;” Immunology Medicine, Alan R. Liss, Inc.; pp. 443-456. 1984. Quote: Mindful of the extremely high rate of atherosclerotic complications and the extraordinary requirements for antioxidants in diabetic patients, the use of beta –1,3 glucan becomes an obvious adjunct for improved lifestyle under these conditions.”

Microparticulate Beta Glucan: Also See “Particle Size” and “Microspheres

Microparticulate Beta Glucan: Baert K, et al, “Duality of B-glucan microparticles: antigen carrier and immunostimulants,” Int J Nanomedicine. 11: 2463–2469, May 31, 2016. PMCID:PMC 4898424. Quoteβ-glucan microparticles (GPs) are emerging microparticles known for their safety, immunogenicity, and high antigen encapsulation efficiency. These promising antigen carriers are derived from the cell wall of Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker’s yeast).  The resulting GPs [B-glucan microparticles] were hollow and porous biomimetic 2–5 µm [micron] particles consisting of >85% β-1,3-D-glucan polymers (β-glucans), ~2% chitin, and <1% lipids and proteins, with the rest being mostly ash and moisture.

Microparticulate Beta Glucan: Berner VK, duPre S, Redelman D, Hunter KW, “Microparticulate B-glucan vaccine conjugates phagocytized by dendritic cells activate both naive CD4 and CD8 T cells in vitro,” Cellular Immunology, ( http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celimm.2015.10.007 ) Nov 2 2015; U of Nevada School of Medicine, Dept of Microbiology .PMID:26549577  Quote: Microparticulate β-glucan (MG) conjugated to vaccine antigen has been shown to serve as an effective adjuvant in vivo.

Microparticulate Beta Glucan: Zechner-Krpan V, Petravic-Tominac V, Galovic P, Galovic V, Filipovic-Grcic J, Srecec S, “Application of Different Drying Methods on B-Glucan Isolated from Spent Brewer’s Yeast Using Alkaline Procedure” University of Zagreb, Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, Vol 75, No 1 2010. Quote: The macrophage phagocytosis is more enhanced by microparticulate B-glucan than by its aggregated formBiological activity of B-glucan can be improved by reducing the size of its particles.  …The particles having 1-2 µm [microns] in diameter are optimally phagocytized by macrophages.”

Microparticulate Beta Glucan: Zechner-Krpan Vesna , Petrav V, Gospodari I, Sajli L, Senka Akovi, Filipovi-Gr J, “Characterization of b-Glucans Isolated from Brewer’s Yeast and Dried by Different Methods,”  University of Zagreb, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, Department of Biochemical Engineering, Laboratory of Biochemical Engineering,Food Technol. Biotechnol. 48 (2) 189–197, 2010. Quote: “It is known that immunological activity of b-glucan depends on particle dimensions and can be improved by reducing the size of the particles….”

Microparticulate Beta Glucan: Hunter KW, Gault RA, Berner MD, “Preparation of microparticulate B-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for use in immune potentiation.” Letters in Applied Microbiology,” Vol 35 Issue 4, 267-271, PubMed 12358685, October 2002 (commercially MG Beta Glucan) Quote“…there was evidence that macrophages, key target cells for the immunopharmacological activity of B-glucans, preferentially ingest particles in the 1-2-µ (micron) diameter size range. …Compared with the aggregated [5-100-µ micron diameter] form of B-glucan, the B-glucan microparticles remain in suspension longer for pharmaceutical applications… .  Although both aggregated and microparticulate glucans enhanced peritoneal macrophage activation when administered orally in mice, the microparticulate glucan was significantly better than the aggregated form. …This microparticulate beta-glucan …following oral administration at 0.1 mg kg(-1) for 14 d, enhanced phagocytosis of mouse peritoneal macrophages significantly better than did aggregated beta-glucan particles….A microparticulate form of beta-glucan that remains in suspension longer for pharmaceutical applications and has superior immune potentiation characteristics has been developed. [0.1 mg kg(-1)=7.5 mg per day for a 165 lb person]

Microparticulate Beta Glucan: Jordan F, Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, “Method for preparing small particle size glucan in a dry material,” U.S. Patent 6,476,003. November 2002. Quote: “The greater generation and/or production of NO (Nitric Oxide) demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage with a small particle size glucan which is indicative of an activity level of an immune system. … The measurement of NO production is indicative of an oxidative burst that kills and/or destroys the ingested microbes and/or particles by the macrophage. As a glucan re-aggregates into particles of greater than one micron in diameter, it appears to pass through an animal or human digestive system without substantially complete absorption. …… As the glucan re-aggregates to a size of greater than one micron in diameter, some of the beneficial effect of the glucan is not achieved because the macrophage receptors are not activated as readily by glucan greater than one micron in diameter because the receptor size on corresponding cells and molecules that accept the glucan is generally about one micron in size. …The greater percentage phagocytosis demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage and the small particle size glucan’s ability to activate the immune system.”

Microparticulate Beta Glucan: Donzis B. A.; Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses; U.S. Patent 5702719; 1997. Quote: “The preferred particle size of the find grind glucan product is about 1.0 micron or less and more preferably, .20 microns or less.” [=1000 to 200 nanometers or less; 1.0 micron = 1/25,400 of an inch]

Microparticulate Beta Glucan: Artusson P, Arro E, Edman P, Ericsson JL, Sjoholm l,  “Biodegradable microspheres. V: Stimulation of macrophages with microparticles made of various polysaccharides,” J Pharm Sci. 1987 Feb;76(2):127-33; PubMed 3572750. Quote:The interaction between four different microparticulate drug carriers and macrophages was investigated in vitro. The microparticles, consisting of lichenan (1,3-beta-D-glucan) …were investigated for their macrophage stimulatory properties. …. Microparticles made of crosslinked lichenan [1,3-beta-D-glucan] were most stimulatory,… .

Microparticulate Beta GlucanArtursson PEdman PEricsson JL., “Macrophage stimulation with some structurally related polysaccharides.” Scand J Immunol. 1987 Mar;25(3):245-54. PMID:3494301. Quote: “The macrophage-stimulating properties of some structurally related polysaccharides were studied in vitro. When the polysaccharides were presented to the macrophages as microparticles, they induced the release of interleukin 1 (IL-1) from the macrophages. Microparticulate 1.3-beta-glucan (curdlan) induced nonspecific macrophage mediated tumour cell killing while 1.4-alpha-glucan( starch), 1.6-alpha-glucan (dextran), and 1.6-alpha-mannan were without effect. The corresponding soluble polysaccharides did not stimulate the macrophages. “

Microspheres: M.J. Auger, J.A. Ross, in: C.E. Lewis, J.O’D. McGee (Eds.), “Influence of microsphere size, composition, concentration and surface property,The Natural Immune System: The Macrophage, Oxford University Press, New York, 1992, pp. 2–74. Quote: “The influence of … size of microspheres on their phagocytosis by mouse peritoneal macrophages were studiedby using polystyrene and phenylated polyacrolein microspheres of different diameter… .Size: maximum phagocytosis took place when their size was in the range of 1-2 μ[microns] … .” Note: Microsphere is a term used for small spherical particles, with diameters in the micrometer/micron range (typically 1μm/micron to 1000μm (1mm)).

Microspheres: Tabata Y, Ikada Y, “Effect of the Size and Surface-Charge of Polymer Microspheres on Their Phagocytosis by Macrophage.”  Biomaterials 9: 356–362.1988. PMID 3214660. Quote: “It was found that the maximal phagocytosis ofpolystyrene and phenylated polyacrolein microspheres took place when their size was in the range 1.0-2.0 microns.”

Nanoparticulates: Farris E, Brown DM, Ramer-ETait, Pannnier AK, “Miro-and nanoparticulates for DNA vaccine delivery” Exp Biol Med (Maywood) pii:1535370216643771; PMID: 27048557; April 4, 2016.  Quote: In contrast, nanoparticle encapsulation leads to increased internalization, overall greater transfection efficiency, and the ability to increase uptake across mucosal surfaces. Moreover, selection of the appropriate biomaterial can lead to increased immune stimulation and activation through triggering innate immune response receptors and target DNA to professional antigen presenting cells. Finally, the selection of materials with the appropriate properties to achieve efficient delivery through administration routes conducive to high patient compliance and capable of generating systemic and local (i.e. mucosal) immunity can lead to more effective humoral and cellular protective immune responses.”

Beta Glucan Particle Size: Farris E, Brown DM, Ramer-ETait, Pannnier AK, “Miro-and nanoparticulates for DNA vaccine delivery” Exp Biol Med (Maywood) pii:1535370216643771; PMID: 27048557; April 4, 2016.  Quote: “In contrast, nanoparticle [micronized] encapsulation leads to increased internalization, overall greater transfection efficiency, and the ability to increase uptake across mucosal surfaces. Moreover, selection of the appropriate biomaterial can lead to increased immune stimulation and activation through triggering innate immune response receptors and target DNA to professional antigen presenting cells. Finally, the selection of materials with the appropriate properties to achieve efficient delivery through administration routes conducive to high patient compliance and capable of generating systemic and local (i.e. mucosal) immunity can lead to more effective humoral and cellular protective immune responses.”  [Note: 1,000 nanometers = 1 micron or micrometer]

Beta Glucan Particle Size:: Pacheco PWhite DSulchek T, “Effects of microparticle size and Fc density on macrophage phagocytosis.” PLoS One. 2013 Apr 22;8(4):e60989. PMID:23630577; PMCID:PMC363260 . Quote“The percentage of phagocytic macrophages was found to be strongly dependent on both the particle size and the particle Fc density. …Interaction with the smaller particles (0.5 µm and 1 µm) at a low Fc density resulted in a greater percentage of phagocytic macrophages than with high Fc density. …Therefore, larger microparticles (3 µm and 4.5 µm) may be more efficient at delivering a greater therapeutic payload to macrophages, but smaller opsonized microparticles (0.5 µm to 2 µm) can deliver bio-active substances to a greater percentage of the macrophage population.

Note: Fc is an antibody molecule known as the crystallizable fragment. µm = microns. Larger Particle sizes in this study were 3 to 4.5 µm (microns)   However, particles from 5 to 100+ µm (microns) are considered aggregated or agglomerated and sometimes referred to as globular due to increased size and reduced phagocytic activity.

 

Beta Glucan Particle Size: Zechner-Krpan V, Petravic-Tominac V, Galovic P, Galovic V, Filipovic-Grcic J, Srecec S, “Application of Different Drying Methods on B-Glucan Isolated from Spent Brewer’s Yeast Using Alkaline Procedure” University of Zagreb, Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, Vol 75, No 1 2010. Quote: The macrophage phagocytosis is more enhanced by microparticulate B-glucan than by its aggregated formBiological activity of B-glucan can be improved by reducing the size of its particles.  …The particles having 1-2 µm [microns] in diameter are optimally phagocytized by macrophages.”

 

Beta Glucan Particle Size: Champion JA, Walker A, Mitragotri S, “Role of particle size in phagocytosis of polymeric microspheres.” Pharmaceutical research 25: 1815–1821 2008. PMIC 18373181, PMC 2793372.  Quote: “Particles possessing diameters of 2-3 microm exhibited maximal phagocytosis and attachment… . “

Beta Glucan Particle Size: Hunter KW, Gault RA, Berner MD, “Preparation of microparticulate B-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for use in immune potentiation.” Letters in Applied Microbiology,” Vol 35 Issue 4, 267-271, October 2002 (commercially MG Beta Glucan) Quote“…there was evidence that macrophages, key target cells for the immunopharmacological activity of B-glucans, preferentially ingest particles in the 1-2-µ (micron) diameter size range.  Compared with the aggregated [5-100-µ micron diameter] form of B-glucan, the B-glucan microparticles remain in suspension longer for pharmaceutical applications and are more effective at enhancing phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages following oral administration. …Although both aggregated and microparticulate glucans enhanced peritoneal macrophage activation when administered orally in mice, the microparticulate glucan was significantly better than the aggregated form”

Beta Glucan Particle Size: Jordan F, Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, “Method for preparing small particle size glucan in a dry material,” U.S. Patent 6,476,003. November 2002. Quote: “The greater generation and/or production of NO (Nitric Oxide) demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage with a small particle size glucan which is indicative of an activity level of an immune system. … The measurement of NO production is indicative of an oxidative burst that kills and/or destroys the ingested microbes and/or particles by the macrophage. …As a glucan re-aggregates into particles of greater than one micron in diameter, it appears to pass through an animal or human digestive system without substantially complete absorption. … As the glucan re-aggregates to a size of greater than one micron in diameter, some of the beneficial effect of the glucan is not achieved because the macrophage receptors are not activated as readily by glucan greater than one micron in diameter because the receptor size on corresponding cells and molecules that accept the glucan is generally about one micron in size. …The greater percentage phagocytosis demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage and the small particle size glucan’s ability to activate the immune system.”

Beta Glucan Particle Size – Smaller more Effective: Donzis B. A.; Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses; U.S. Patent 5702719; 1997. Quote: “The preferred particle size of the find grind glucan product is about 1.0 micron or less and more preferably, .20 microns or less.” [2,000 nanometers or less]

Beta Gllucan Particle Size – Smaller more Effective: Donzis B. A.; Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses; U.S. Patent 5576015; 1996. Quote: “Upon oral administration, the smaller or finer particle sized glucan is more quickly dissolved in the gastrointestinal tract and consequently, more readily absorbed.”

Beta Glucan – Particulate: Goodridge H, Reyes C, Becker C et al; “Activation of the innate immune receptor Dectin-1 upon formation of a ‘phagocytic synapse'” Nature, Vol 472 p 471-475, April 28, 2011. * Quote: “…Dectin-1 is a pattern-recognition receptor expressed by myeloid phagocytes (macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils) that detects b-glucans in fungal cell walls and triggers direct cellular antimicrobial activity… . Despite its ability to bind both soluble and particulate B-glucan polymers, Dectin-1 signaling is only activated by particulate B-glucans. …Studies in mice and humans have demonstrated an important role for Dectin-1 in anti-fungal defense. Dectin-1 signals activate anti-microbial phagocytosis, production of ROD [reactive oxygen species] and inflammatory innate immune responses, and influence the development of adaptive immunity…”

Beta Glucan Particulate: Brown G D, Gordon Siamon; “Fungal B-Glucans and Mammalian Immunity.” Sir William Dunn Sch of Pathology, U of Oxford, UK, Immunity, Vol19, 311-316, 2003.  Quote: “.. B-glucans, especially in particulate form, can produce proinflammatory and antimicrobial responses through the TLRs and Dectin-1 [cell receptors for B-glucan]. Many of these responses are required for the control of fungal infections, such as the production of TNF-Alpha, and is an essential early cytokine required for the control of infections with C. albicans, A. fumigatus, C. neoformans, and H capsulatum. This is also true for IL-12, another important anti-fungal cytokine… .

Particle Size: Farris E, Brown DM, Ramer-ETait, Pannnier AK, “Miro-and nanoparticulates for DNA vaccine delivery” Exp Biol Med (Maywood) pii:1535370216643771; PMID: 27048557; April 4, 2016.  Quote: In contrast, nanoparticle encapsulation leads to increased internalization, overall greater transfection efficiency, and the ability to increase uptake across mucosal surfaces. Moreover, selection of the appropriate biomaterial can lead to increased immune stimulation and activation through triggering innate immune response receptors and target DNA to professional antigen presenting cells. Finally, the selection of materials with the appropriate properties to achieve efficient delivery through administration routes conducive to high patient compliance and capable of generating systemic and local (i.e. mucosal) immunity can lead to more effective humoral and cellular protective immune responses.”

Particle Size:: Pacheco PWhite DSulchek T, “Effects of microparticle size and Fc density on macrophage phagocytosis.” PLoS One. 2013 Apr 22;8(4):e60989. PMID:23630577; PMCID:PMC363260 . Quote“The percentage of phagocytic macrophages was found to be strongly dependent on both the particle size and the particle Fc density. …Interaction with the smaller particles (0.5 µm and 1 µm) at a low Fc density resulted in a greater percentage of phagocytic macrophages than with high Fc density. …Therefore, larger microparticles (3 µm and 4.5 µm) may be more efficient at delivering a greater therapeutic payload to macrophages, but smaller opsonized microparticles (0.5 µm to 2 µm) can deliver bio-active substances to a greater percentage of the macrophage population.

Note: Fc is an antibody molecule known as the crystallizable fragment. µm = microns. Larger Particle sizes in this study were 3 to 4.5 µm (microns)   However, particles from 5 to 100+ µm (microns) are considered aggregated or agglomerated and sometimes referred to as globular due to increased size and reduced phagocytic activity.

 

Particle Size: Zechner-Krpan V, Petravic-Tominac V, Galovic P, Galovic V, Filipovic-Grcic J, Srecec S, “Application of Different Drying Methods on B-Glucan Isolated from Spent Brewer’s Yeast Using Alkaline Procedure” University of Zagreb, Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, Vol 75, No 1 2010. Quote: The macrophage phagocytosis is more enhanced by microparticulate B-glucan than by its aggregated formBiological activity of B-glucan can be improved by reducing the size of its particles.  …The particles having 1-2 µm [microns] in diameter are optimally phagocytized by macrophages.”

 

Particle Size: Champion JA, Walker A, Mitragotri S, “Role of particle size in phagocytosis of polymeric microspheres.”  Pharmaceutical research 25: 1815–1821 2008. PMIC 18373181, PMC 2793372.  Quote: “Particles possessing diameters of 2-3 microm exhibited maximal phagocytosis and attachment… . “

Particle Size: Hunter KW, Gault RA, Berner MD, “Preparation of microparticulate B-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae for use in immune potentiation.” Letters in Applied Microbiology,” Vol 35 Issue 4, 267-271, October 2002 (commercially MG Beta Glucan) Quote:“…there was evidence that macrophages, key target cells for the immunopharmacological activity of B-glucans, preferentially ingest particles in the 1-2-µ (micron) diameter size range.  Compared with the aggregated [5-100-µ micron diameter] form of B-glucan, the B-glucan microparticles remain in suspension longer for pharmaceutical applications and are more effective at enhancing phagocytosis by peritoneal macrophages following oral administration. …Although both aggregated and microparticulate glucans enhanced peritoneal macrophage activation when administered orally in mice, the microparticulate glucan was significantly better than the aggregated form”

Particle Size: Jordan F, Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, “Method for preparing small particle size glucan in a dry material,” U.S. Patent 6,476,003. November 2002. Quote: “The greater generation and/or production of NO (Nitric Oxide) demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage with a small particle size glucan which is indicative of an activity level of an immune system. … The measurement of NO production is indicative of an oxidative burst that kills and/or destroys the ingested microbes and/or particles by the macrophage. …As a glucan re-aggregates into particles of greater than one micron in diameter, it appears to pass through an animal or human digestive system without substantially complete absorption. … As the glucan re-aggregates to a size of greater than one micron in diameter, some of the beneficial effect of the glucan is not achieved because the macrophage receptors are not activated as readily by glucan greater than one micron in diameter because the receptor size on corresponding cells and molecules that accept the glucan is generally about one micron in size. …The greater percentage phagocytosis demonstrates the enhanced activity of the macrophage and the small particle size glucan’s ability to activate the immune system.”

Particle Size: , Hunter Jr. KW, Gault R, Jordan F, “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Oct 1998.

  Globular Glucan (μg/ml) Sonicated Microparticulate Glucan (μg/ml) Media
Nitric Oxide (μM)  275  600  0

 

Quote: “…these data do indicate Glucan particle size is an important factor in the production of nitric oxide.  Nitric oxide is generated during the “oxidative burst” that kills ingested microbes [bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, etc]. This would suggest that the small particle glucan has greater ability to enhance the immune system than the globular form of glucan.” 

Particle Size – Smaller more Effective: Donzis B. A.; Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses; U.S. Patent 5702719; 1997. Quote: “The preferred particle size of the find grind glucan product is about 1.0 micron or less and more preferably, .20 microns or less.” [2,000 nanometers or less]

Particle Size – Smaller more Effective: Donzis B. A.; Substantially purified beta (1,3) finely ground yeast cell wall glucan composition with dermatological and nutritional uses; U.S. Patent 5576015; 1996. Quote: “Upon oral administration, the smaller or finer particle sized glucan is more quickly dissolved in the gastrointestinal tract and consequently, more readily absorbed.”

Particle Size: Tabata Y, Ikada Y, “Effect of the Size and Surface-Charge of Polymer Microspheres on Their Phagocytosis by Macrophage.”  Biomaterials 9: 356–362.1988 . PMID 3214660. Quote: “It was found that the maximal phagocytosis ofpolystyrene and phenylated polyacrolein microspheres took place when their size was in the range 1.0-2.0 microns.”


 

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