เนื้องอก (Tumors /Neopasia)

Tumors: Mo L, Chen Y, Guo S, et al, “Anti-tumor effects of (1-3)-B-d-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in S180 tumor-bearing mice,” Int J Bil Macromol, pii:SO141-8130(16)30887-X, PMID17838421; Nov 9, 2016. Quote: “The volume and weight of S180 [cancer] tumors decreased dramatically following treatment with (1-3)-B-d-glucan, and…was furthermore shown to increase the tumor inhibition rate. …these results indicate that the anti-tumor effects exerted by (1-3)-B-d-glucan may be attributed to …immunostimulating properties and apoptosis-inducing features.”  Note:  apoptosis=cell death

Monoclonal Antibodies and Beta Glucan: Li B, Allendorg DJ, et al; “Yeast beta-glucan amplifies phagocyte killing of iC3b-opsonized tumor cells via complement receptor 3-Syk-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway,” J Immunol, Aug 1;177(3): 1651-9 2006. PMID 16849475, Quote: “Anti-tumor mAbs hold promise for cancer therapy, but are relatively inefficient. Therefore, there is a need for agents that might amplify the effectiveness of these mAbs. One such agent is beta glucan… . In this study, we report that tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of beta-glucan and anti-tumor mAb show almost complete cessation of tumor growth. …These results are important inasmuch as beta-glucan, an agent without evident toxicity, may be used to amplify tumor cell killing and may open new opportunities in the immunotherapy of cancer.”

Neoplasia: Proctor and Yamamura; “Letters to the Editor: Effectiveness of Glucan in the Treatment of Human Neoplasia”. J. Nat’l Cancer Inst.; 61: 1179-1180. 1978.

Neoplasia: Schultz, et al., in “Immune Modulation and Control of Neoplasia by Adjuvant Therapy”, Chirigos, ed., Raven Press, New York; pp. 241-248. 1978.

Neoplastic Diseases: DiLuzio N.R. (deceased), Williams D.L., Browder I.W.; Soluble phosphorylated glucan: methods and compositions for treatment of neoplastic diseases; U.S. Patent 4818752; 1989.

Tumor necrosis factorSteadman R., Petersen M.M., et al; “Differential augmentation by recombinant human tumor necrosis factor-alpha of neutrophil responses to particulate zymosan and glucan,” J. Immunol 144: 2712-2718. 1990.

Tumorigenesis: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: “Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same.” U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: Beta-glucan was shown to be beneficial in animal models of trauma, wound healing and tumorigenesis [formation or production of tumors].”

Tumors: Mo L, Chen Y, Guo S, et al, “Anti-tumor effects of (1-3)-B-d-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae in S180 tumor-bearing mice,” Int J Bil Macromol, pii:SO141-8130(16)30887-X, PMID17838421; Nov 9, 2016. Quote: “The volume and weight of S180 [cancer] tumors decreased dramatically following treatment with (1-3)-B-d-glucan, and…was furthermore shown to increase the tumor inhibition rate. …these results indicate that the anti-tumor effects exerted by (1-3)-B-d-glucan may be attributed to …immunostimulating properties and apoptosis-inducing features.”  Notes:  apoptosis:cell death.  S180 Tumor: murine cancer cell line

Tumors: Ning Y, et al, “B-glucan restores tumor-educated dendritic cell maturation to enhance antitumor immune responses.”  Int J Cancer, 1:138(11): 2713-23, June 1, 2016. PMID: 26773960Quote: “Treatment with β-glucan drastically decreased the levels of regulatory T (Treg) cells but increased the infiltration of macrophages, granulocytes and DCs in tumor masses, thus elicited Th1 differentiation and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte responses and led to a delay in tumor progression. These findings reveal that β-glucan can inhibit the regulatory function of TEDCs, therefore revealing a novel function for β-glucan in immunotherapy.”

Tumors: Berner VK, duPre S, Redelman D, Hunter KW, “Microparticulate B-glucan vaccine conjugates phagocytized by dendritic cells activate both naive CD4 and CD8 T cells in vitro,” Cellular Immunology, ( http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celimm.2015.10.007 ) 2015; U of Nevada School of Medicine, Dept of Microbiology. Quote: The interaction between B-glucan and its receptors serves as an activating signal that promotes anti-fungal immunity, but fungal B-glucan also has a long history of use as an adjuvant to promote immune responses to tumors and other microorganisms…Microparticulate B-glucan (MG) was shown to exhibit adjuvant activity when conjugated to a test vaccine antigen. ….Recent studies have confirmed that B-glucan particles can be used to deliver vaccine antigen for oral immunization.

Tumors: Qi C, Cai Y, Ding, Li B, Kloecker G, Qian K, Vasilakos J, Saijo S, Iwakura Y, Yannelli JR, Yan J; “Differential pathways regulating innate and adaptive antitumor immune responses by particulate.” Div of Hermatology/Oncology, Dept of Medicine, James Graham Brown Ctr, U of Louisville, KY; Blood;117(25):6825-36; Jun 23 2011: Quote: “B-glucans have been reported to function as a potent adjuvant to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. …Here we show that yeast-derived B-glucan activated dendritic cells (DCs and macrophages….Activated DCs by particulate B-glucan promoted Th1 and cytotoxic T-lymphocyte priming and differentiation in vitro.  Treatment of orally administered yeast-derived particulate B-glucan elicited potent antitumor immune responses and drastically down-regulated immunosuppressive cells, leading to the delayed tumor progression.”

Tumors: Tian J, Ma J, Ma K, etc, “B-Glucan enhances antitumor immune responses by regulating differentiation and function of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells.”  Eur J Immunonl, 2013 May;43(5):1220-30. doi. Quote: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in tumor-bearing hosts and play a major role in tumor-induced immunosuppression, which hampers effective immuno-therapeutic approaches. B-Glucans have been reported to function as potent immune-modulators to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses, which contribute to their antitumor property. …thereby leading to the delayed tumor progression.”

Tumors: Lehtovaara BC, Gu FX; “Pharmacological, Structural, and Drug Delivery Properties and Applications of 1,3-B-Glucans,” Dept of Chem Eng, U of Waterloo, Ontario, Canada; J Agric Food Chem, Jun 7 2011.  PMID 21609131. Quote: “The pharmacological capabilities of 1,3-B-glucans include the impartation of tumor inhibition, resistance to infectious disease, and improvements in wound healing.”

Tumors: LiB, Cai Y, Qi C, etc., “Orally administered particulate beta-glucan modulates tumor-capturing dendritic cells and improves antitumor T-cell responses in cancer.”  Clin Cancer Res, 2010 Nov 1:16(21):5153-64. Quote: “IFN-y [interferon] production of tumor-infiltrating T cells and CTL responses were significantly enhanced on B-glucan treatment, which ultimately resulted in significantly reduced tumor burden. …These data highlight the ability of yeast-derived B-glucan to bridge innate and adaptive antitumor immunity and suggest that it can be used as an adjuvant for tumor immunotherapy.”

Tumors: Liu J, Gunn L, Hansen R, Yan J; “Combined yeast-derived beta-glucan with anti-tumor monoclonal antibody for cancer immunotherapy.” Tumor Immunobiology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Ctr, Louisville, KY; Exp Mol Pathol, 86(3): 208-14, PubMed 19454271; June 2009: Quote: Recent studies have unraveled the action mode of yeast-derived beta-glucan in combination with anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in cancer therapy…Pre-clinical animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of combined beta-glucan with anti-tumor mAb therapy in terms of tumor regression and long-term survival. …It is proposed that the addition of beta-glucan will further improve the therapeutic efficacy of anti-tumor mAbs in cancer patients.”

Tumors: Akramiene D, Kondrotas A, Didziapetriene J, Kevelaitis E; “Effects of beta-glucans on the immune system.” Medicina (Kaunas). Dept of Physiology, Kaunas U of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithunia. 43(8):597-606; 2007. Quote: “Beta-glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharides….These substances increase host immune defense by activating complement system, enhancing macrophages and natural killer cell function.  beta-Glucans also show anticarcinogenic activity. They can prevent oncogenesis due to the protective effect against potent genotoxic carcinogens. As immunostimulating agent, which acts through the activation of macrophages and NK cell cytotoxicity, beta-glucan can inhibit tumor growth…reduce tumor proliferation, prevent tumor metastasis. beta-Glucan as adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy demonstrated the positive role in the restoration of hematopiesis [red blood cells] following by bone marrow injury.  Immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies is a novel strategy of cancer treatment. These [monoclonal] antibodies activate complement system and opsonize tumor cells with iC3b fragment. …tumor cells, as well as other host cells, lack beta-glucan as a surface component and cannot trigger complement receptor 3-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and initiate tumor-killing activity.  This mechanism [tumor-killing activity] could be induced in the presence of beta-glucans.

Tumors: Sener G, Eksioglu-Demiraop E, Cetiner M, Ercan F, Yegen BC;  “beta-glucan ameliorates methotrexate-induced oxidative organ injury via its antioxidant and immunomodulatory effects.” European J Pharmacology; 542(1-3):170-178; Epub May 2006. Aug 7 2006. Quote: “Methotrexate is an antifolate [antimetabolite chemotherapy drug] that is widely used in the treatment of rheumatic disorders and malignant tumors. The efficacy of methotrexate is often limited by severe side effects and toxic sequelae [disease condition caused by a disease], where oxidative stress[free radical damage] is noticeable. … Thus, the findings of the present study suggest that beta-glucan, through its antioxidant and immunoregulatory effects, may be of therapeutic value in alleviating the leukocyte apoptosis [white immune cell death], oxidative [free radical] tissue injury and thereby the intestinal and hepatorenal [liver or kidney] side effects of methotrexate treatment.”

Tumors: Gu YH, Takagi Y, et al; “Enhancement of radioprotection and anti-tumor immunity by yeast-derived beta-glucan in mice,” J Med Food. 8(2) 154-8; Dept of Radiological Technology, Suzuka U of Med Sc, Suzuka, Japan, Summer 2005. Quote: Intraperitoneal injection of beta-glucan was shown to greatly delay mortality in mice exposed to whole-body X-ray radiation and tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. …Augmented immunological activity as seen in increased NK (natural killer) and LAK (lymphokine-activated killer) activity by beta-glucan seems to play a role in preventing secondary infections associated with irradiation and probably contributes to the attenuated [reduced] tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice through enhanced anti-tumour immunity.  These results suggest that beta-glucan may be a promising adjunct treatment for cancer patients receiving radiotherapy.”

Tumors – Immunotherapy – Cancer: Li B, Allendorf D, Hansen R, Marroquin J, Ding C, Cramer DE, Yan J; “Yeast beta-Glucan Amplifies Phagocyte Killing of iC3b-Opsonized Tumor Cells via Complement Receptor 3-Syk-Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway.” J Immunology: 1:177(3):1661-9. Tumor Immunobiology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY. Aug 2006. Quote: Anti-tumor mAbs [monoclonal antibodies] hold promise for cancer therapy, but are relatively inefficient. …In this study, we report that tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of beta-glucan and an anti-tumor mAb show almost complete cessation of tumor growth.  beta-glucan, an agent without evident toxicity, may be used to amplify tumor cell killing and may open new opportunities in the immunotherapy of cancer.

Tumors – Cancer: Yan J, Allendorf DJ, Brandley B, “Yeast whole glucan particle (WGP) beta-glucan in conjunction with antitumour monoclonal antibodies to treat cancer.” Expert Opin Biol Ther; 5(5):691-702; James Graham Brown Cancer Ctr, Louisville, KY, 2005.Quote: “Extensive studies in preclinical animal tumour models have demonstrated the efficacy of combined oral particulate yeast beta-glucan with antitumour mAb [monoclonal antibodies] in terms of tumour regression and long-term survival. It is proposed that the addition of beta-glucan will further improve the clinical therapeutic efficacy of antitumour mAbs in cancer patients.”

Tumors: Hong F, Yan J,”Mechanism by which orally administered beta-1,3-glucans enhance the tumoricidal activity of antitumor monoclonal antibodies in murine tumor models.”  J Immunol 173(2):797-806, Jul 15 2004. PMID 15240666. Quote: “Orally administered B-1,3-glucans were taken up by macrophages that transported them to spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. …Antitumor mAb [monoclonal antibodies] bind to tumors and activate complement, coating tumors with iC3b. Intravenously administered yeast beta-1,3;1,6-glucan functions as an adjuvant for antitumor mAb by priming the inactivated C3b (iC3b complement) receptors (CR3; CD11b/CD18) of circulating granulocytes [primarily neutrophils] , enabling CR3 to trigger cytotoxicity [emitted chemical killing] of iC3b-coated tumors. “

Tumors: Ross G, Hong F, Allendorf D, Hansen R, Ostroff G; “Mechanism of Tumor Regression Stimulated by Yeast Beta Glucan Dietary Supplement.” Abstract. April 9, 2003. Quote“The mechanism of B-glucan enhancement of tumor mAb immunotherapy involves the activation of the innate immune cells (macrophages and neutrophils) via the lectin binding site on CR3 to target and kill Ab opsonized tumor cells.  Oral yeast B-glucan is orally absorbed and transported by macrophages into immune tissues and tumors resulting in the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and soluble B-glucan leading to an enhanced innate immune cell attack against tumor cells.”

Tumors: Pola P, “Composition for the prevention and/or treatment of lipid metabolism disorders and allergic forms,” U.S. Patent Application 20030017999, January 23, 2003. “.beta-1,3-D-glucan has proved effective not only in preventing lipid metabolism disorders, but also in stimulating immune defenses, in preventing onset of tumors and in controlling serum glucose.”

Tumors: Cheung NK, Modak S, Vickers A, Knuckles B; “Orally administered beta-glucans enhance anti-tumor effects of monoclonal antibodies,” Department of Pediatrics, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy ;51(10):557-64. Dec 2002. Quote: “We studied readily available (1–>3)-beta- D-glucan using the immune deficient xenograft tumor models, and examined the relationship of its anti-tumor effect …. Given the favorable efficacy and toxicity profile of oral beta- D-glucan treatment, the role of natural products that contain beta-glucan in cancer treatment as an enhancer of the effect of mAb therapy deserves further study.”

Tumors: Hunter K, Gault R, Jordan F; “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators-Research Summary Release,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Jan 2001. Quote: “MG Glucan has been shown to enhance the envelopment and digestion (phagocytosis) of pathogenic microorganisms that cause infectious disease…The Beta-1,3/1,6 glucans additionally enhance the ability of macrophages, one of the most important cells in the immune system, to kill tumor cells. Laboratory studies have revealed the new MG Glucan is significantly effective at activating Macrophages, and via the Macrophages, the entire immune cascade including T-Cells and B-Cells.”

Tumors: Brown G D, Gordon S; “Immune recognition. A new receptor for beta-glucans.” Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Nature 6;413(6851):36-7. Sep 2001. Quote: “The carbohydrate polymers known as beta-1,3-d-glucans exert potent effects on the immune system – stimulating antitumour and antimicrobial activity, for example – by binding to receptors on macrophages and other white blood cells and activating them.”

TumorsArtursson PEdman PEricsson JL., “Macrophage stimulation with some structurally related polysaccharides.” Scand J Immunol. 1987 Mar;25(3):245-54. PMID:3494301. Quote: “The macrophage-stimulating properties of some structurally related polysaccharides were studied in vitro. When the polysaccharides were presented to the macrophages as microparticles, they induced the release of interleukin 1 (IL-1) from the macrophages...Microparticulate 1.3-beta-glucan (curdlan) induced nonspecific macrophage mediated tumour cell killing while 1.4-alpha-glucan( starch), 1.6-alpha-glucan (dextran), and 1.6-alpha-mannan were without effect. The corresponding soluble polysaccharides did not stimulate the macrophages. “

Tumors : Mansell P.W.A., Rowden G., Hammer C.; “Clinical experiences with the use of glucan.” Chirigos MA, ed.; Immune Modulation and Control of Neoplasia by Adjuvant Therapy. Raven Press, New York 255-280; 1978.

Tumors – Regression: Seljelid R, “A water-soluble aminated beta 1-3D-glucan derivative causes regression of solid tumors in mice,” Biosci Rep 6(9):845-851. Sep 1986.* Quote“When water-soluble aminated beta 1,-D-glucan (AG) was injected intravenously or intraperitoneally on day 7 of tumor growth, the tumors underwent complete regression.”

Tumors – Sarcoma: Seljelid R, et al, “Evidence that tumor necrosis induced by an irradiated beta 1-3D polyglucose is mediated by a concerted action of local and systemic cytokines,” Scand J Immuno 30(6): 687-694. Dec 1989.*  Quote: “Aminated beta 1-3D polyglucose (AG) causes regression of Meth A sarcoma in syngeneic mice when injected systemically on day 7 after tumour inoculation. AG does not concentrate in the tumour, but distributes throughout the body. 

Tumors:  Bogwald J, Johnson E, Seljelid R;, “The Cytotoxic Effect of Mouse Macrophages Stimulated in vitro by a .beta. 1,3-D-Glucan from Yeast Cell Walls”. Scand. J. Immuol. 15: 297-304. 1982.  Institute of Med Bio, U of Tromso, Norway.  Quote: “ Macrophages stimulated by an insoluble beta 1-3-D-glucan from yeast cell walls were able to destroy tumour cells as measured by the release of radioactive label from prelabeled 14C-thymidine cells.  Target cells were B-16 melanoma, P-815 mastocytoma, and the L-929 cell line.   A significant target cell killing by macrophages stimulated by glucan was observed after 72-96 h.”

Tumors: DiLuzio N.R., Hoffman E.D., “Glucan-induced enhancement of host resistance to experimental tumors.” Prog. Cancer  Therapy, 2: 475-499. 1977.

Tumors: DiLuzio N.R., McNamee R.B., Wiliams D.L., Gilbert K.M., Spanjers M.A., “Glucan induced inhibition of tumor growth and enhancement of survival in a variety of transplantable and spontaneous murine turmor models;” Adv Exp Med Biol 121A:269-290, 1980.

Tumors: DiLuzio N.R., Williams D.L., et al, “Comparative tumor-inhibotory and anti-bacterial activity of soluble and particulate glucan,” Int J Cancer, 24(6):773-779. Dec 1979.* Quote: “…these studies demonstrate that a soluble glucan preparation exhibits significant anti-tumor and anti-staphylococcal activity.”

Tumors: DiLuzio N.R.,”Immunopharmacology of glucan: a broad spectrum enhancer of host defense mechanisms,” Trends in Pharmacol. SCI., 4:344-347. Dept of Physiology, Tulane U, New Orleans, LA.* 1983. Quote: (p347) “The broad spectrum of immunopharmacological activities of glucan includes not only the modification of certain bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections, but also inhibition of tumor growth.”

Tumors: Fukase S, Inoue T, Arai S, Sendo F; “Tumor cytotoxicity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in beige mice: linkage of high responsiveness to linear beta-1,3-D-glucan with the beige gene.” Cancer Res. 47:4842-4847. 1987.

Tumors: Glovsky MM, et al,; “Effects of particulate beta-1,3 glucan on human, rat, and guinea pig complement activity,” J. Reticuloendothel Soc. 33:401-413. 1983.* Quote: “Glucan administration is associated with the modification of a variety of experimentally induced infectious disease states as well as the inhibition of growth of implantable and spontaneous tumors.”

Tumors: Kasai, S., Fujimoto S., Nitta K., Baba H., Kunimoto T., “Antitumor activity of polymorphonuclear leukcytes activated by a B-1,3-D-glucan”.  J. Pharmacobiodyn.  14:519-525. Medline.

Tumors: Mansell P.W.A. and DiLuzio N.R., “The in vivo destruction of human tumor by glucan activated macrophages. Macrophage in Neoplasia Fink, ed. Academic Press, New York, pp. 227-243. 1976.

Tumors: Morikawa K., Takeda M., Yamazaki, M., and Mizuno D., “Induction of tumoricidal activity of polymorphonuclear leukocytes by a linear B-1,3-D-glucan and other immunomodulators in murine cells”. Cancer Res., 45: 1496-1501. (Medline).

Tumors: Proctor J.W., Stiteler R.D., Yamamura Y., Mansell P.W., Winters R., “Effect of glucan and other adjuvants on the clearance of radiolabeled tumor cells from mouse lungs”, Cancer Treat. Rep. ^2 (11): 1873-1880. (1978).

Tumors: Proctor, et al., “Development of a Bioassay for Anti-Tumor Activity of the Reticuloendoethelial Stimulant Class: Reproducibility of the Bioassay”. J. Immunopharmacol.; 3: 385-395. 1981-1982.* Quote: “Intravenously administered DiLuzio glucan…caused dose dependent increases in the tumor cell loss from the lungs of …mice challenged respectively with intravenous 125IuDR labelled B16 or T 1699 mammary carcinoma cells.”

Tumors: Scholtz R.M., et al; “Association of macrophage activation with antitumor activity by synthetic and biological agents.” Cancer Res., 37:3338-33343. 1977.

Tumors: Schultz, et al., “Association of Macrophage Activation with Anti-tumor Activity by Synthetic and Biologic Agents”.  Cancer Res.; 37:3338-43. 1977.

Tumors: Seljelid R, “Tumour regression after treatment with aminated beta 1-3D polyglucose is initiated by circulatory failure,” Scand J Immunol 29(2): 181-192; Feb 1989.*

Tumors: Seljelid R, Busund LT, “The biology of macrophages: II. Inflammation and tumors,” Eur J Haematol 52(1): 1-12. Jan 1994.*  Dept of Exp Pathol, Inst of Med Biol, U of Tromso, Norway.

Tumors: Yoshizawa, et al, “Effects of Natural Human Interleukin-6 on Thrombopoiesis and Tumor Progression in Tumor-Bearing Mice”,Cancer Letters; vol. 79, pp. 83-89. 1994.

Tumors – Pulminary Metastases: Penna C, Dean P, Nelson H (Dept of Surgery-Mayo Clinic); “Pulmonary metastases neutralization and tumor rejection by in vivo administration of beta glucan and bispecific antibody;” Int J Cancer, 65.3,377-82. Jan 1996. Quote: “In the established tumor model, beta glucan + Bispecific antibody (BsAb) reduced the incidence of s.c. tumors as compared with control…It also prolonged survival of tumor-bearing mice compared with control. We conclude that T cells can be activated in vivo by beta glucan…”


 

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