Bacterial Infection: Vural KD, Uslu H, Keles ON, Unal B, Alp HH, “Investigation of the protective effects of beta-D-glucan against invasive encapsulated Streptococcus pneumonia sepsis in splenectomized rats.” Mikrobiyol Bul, Jul: 49(3):314-26, 2015. PMID 26313274. Quote: “The most common species which are responsible for sepsis are encapsulated bacteria such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Neisseria meningitidis. …b-D-glucan [BDG] … shows immunomodulatory activity, by enhancing the resistance of the host against microbial agents, and promotes phagocytic and proliferative activities of reticuloendothelial system [phagocytic cells including macrophages and monocytes involved in the immune system]. …BDG, ceftriaxone and BDG+ceftriaxone groups had statistically significant decrease in the amount of bacteria in all tissues when compared to the sepsis group (p<0.05). … The data of our study suggests that, BDG [B-D-glucan] alone, an immunomodulatory agent, alone and in combination with ceftriaxone can reverse the systemic inflammatory reaction in Streptococcus pneumoniae sepsis and thereby can reduce multiple organ failure.”
Bacterial Infection: Zechner-Krpan V, Petravic-Tominac V, GrBa Slobodan, Pnaikota-Krbavcic I, Vidovic L, “Biological Effects of Yeast B-Glucans,” Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 2010, Vol 75, No.4 (149-158). Quote: “Immunomodulation by B-glucan, both in vitro and in vivo, inhibits cancer cell growth and metastasis and prevents bacterial infection. In humans, dietary B-glucan lowers blood cholesterol, improves glucose utilization by body cells and also helps wound healing.”
Bacterial Infection: Jamas S, Easson D, Ostroff G: “Underivatilized aqueous soluble beta (1,3) glucan, composition and method of making same.” U.S. Patent Application 20020032170, March 14, 2002. Quote: “The use of soluble and insoluble beta glucans alone or as vaccine adjuvants for viral and bacterial antigens has been shown in animal models to markedly increase resistance to a variety of bacterial, fungal, protozoan and viral infections.”
Bacterial Infection: Brown G D, Gordon S; “Immune recognition. A new receptor for beta-glucans.” Sir William Dunn School of Pathology, University of Oxford, Nature 6;413(6851):36-7. Sep 2001. Quote: “The carbohydrate polymers known as beta-1,3-d-glucans exert potent effects on the immune system – stimulating antitumour and antimicrobial activity, for example – by binding to receptors on macrophages and other white blood cells and activating them.”
Bacterial Infection: Franek J, Malina J, Kratka H, “Bacterial infection modulated by glucan: a search for the host defense potentiation mechanisms,” Folia Microbiol (Praha) 37(2): 146-152. 1992.
Bacterial Infections: Wyde, P., “Beta-1,3-glucan activity in mice: intraperitoneal and oral applications.” Baylor College of Medicine Research Report. 1989. Quote: “This demonstration of bactericidal enhancement via oral dosing suggests an application for beta-1,3-glucan as a component in a combined modality with conventional anti-infective agents. Beta glucan, through the stimulation of host defense systems, creates a more supportive environment within the body to assist the primary killing action of the conventional agent.”
Bacterial Infections: Czop, Joyce K., “The Role of Beta.-Glucan Receptors on Blood and Tissue Leukocytes in Phagocytosis and Metabolic Activation”. Pathology and Immunopathology Research; 5:286-296. Harvard Medical School. 1986.Quote: “…the presence of a particulate activator can rapidly initiate assembly and amplification of a host defense system involving humoral and cellular interactions with B-glucans. …Animals pretreated with purified glucan particles are subsequently more resistant to bacterial, viral, fungal, and protozoan challenge, reject antigenically incompatible grafts more rapidly and produce higher titers of serum antibodies to specific antigens. Administration of glucan particles …stimulates…proliferation of macrophages and increases in phagocytic and secretory activities of macrophages. …A cascade of interactions and reactions initiated by macrophage regulatory factors can be envisioned to occur and to eventuate in conversion of the glucan-treated host to an arsenal of defense.”
Bacterial Infection: DiLuzio N.R.,” Immunopharmacology of glucan: a broad spectrum enhancer of host defense mechanisms,” Trends in Pharmacol. SCI., 4:344-347. Dept of Physiology, Tulane U, New Orleans, LA.* 1983. Quote: (p347) “The broad spectrum of immunopharmacological activities of glucan includes not only the modification of certain bacterial, fungal, viral and parasitic infections, but also inhibition of tumor growth.”
Bacterial Infection: Browder W, Williams D, Di Luzio N, et al, “Protective effect of nonspecific immunostimulation in postsplenectomy sepsis,” J Surg Res, Dec:35(6):474-9, 1983 PMID 6656237. Quote: “This study reports the use of glucan, a beta-1,3-polyglucose, as a nonspecific immunostimulant for postsplenectomy pneumococcal sepsis. ,,, Glucan significantly increased survival in the splenectomy group (75%) compared to controls (27%). … Nonspecific immunostimulation [by a beta-1,3-polyglucose] appears to have significant potential as a treatment strategy against postsplenectomy infection.”
Bacterial Infections: Kokoshis PL, DiLuzio NR et al, “Increased resistance to Staphylococcus aureus infection and enhancement in serum lysozyme activity by glucan.” Science, 199(4335);1340-1342; 1978: Quote: “Prior treatment of mice with glucan significantly enhanced their survival when they were challenged systemically with Staphylococcus aureus. These studies indicate glucan confers an enhanced state of host defense against bacterial infections.”
Bacterial: Jordan F.; “An Effective Immune Response Potentiator– Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall,” Macrophage Technologies Publication, pp 1-7; 1998.
Bacterial: Rasmussen, LT and Seljelid, R.: “Novel Immunomodulators With Pronounced In Vitro Effects Caused by Stimulation of Cytokine Release”, Journal of Cellular Biochemistry; 46:60-68. Inst of Med Bio, U of Tromso, Norway. 1991.* Quote: “Beta-1,3-D-polyglucose derivatives protect mice against otherwise lethal bacterial infections.”
Bacterial: Kimura A, Sherwood R, Goldstein E; “Glucan alteration of pulmonary antibacterial defense.” J Reticuloendothel. Soc. 24:1-11. 1983.