โรคมะเร็ง (Cancer)

Carcinoma – Salvador C, Li B, Hansen R, Cramer DE, Kong M, Yan J. “Yeast-Derived {beta}-Glucan Augments the Therapeutic Efficacy Mediated by Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Monoclonal Antibody in Human Carcinoma Xenograft Models.” Clin Cancer Res, 14(4):1239-47. Feb 15 2008

Carcinoma – Bladder:  Thompson I.M., Spence C.R. Lamn D.L., DiLuzio N.R., “ Immunochemotherapy of bladder carcinoma with glucan and cyclophosphamide”, Am. J. Med. Sci. 294 (5): 294-300.  1987.*

Carcinoma – Mammary: Proctor, et al., “Development of a Bioassay for Anti-Tumor Activity of the Reticuloendoethelial Stimulant Class: Reproducibility of the Bioassay”. J. Immunopharmacol.; 3: 385-395. 1981-1982.* Quote: “Intravenously administered DiLuzio glucan…caused dose dependent increases in the tumor cell loss from the lungs of …mice challenged respectively with intravenous 125IuDR labelled B16 or T 1699 mammary carcinoma cells.”

Cancer: Saber A, Alipour B, et al: “Cellular and molecular effects of yeast probiotics on cancer,” Crit Rev Microbiol, PMID 27561003, 1-20 Aug 25, 2016;  Quote: “Nonpathogenic yeasts, as members of probiotics family, can be effective on gut microbiota dysbiosis. …Probiotic yeasts influence physiology, metabolism, and immune homeostasis in the colon and contribute to cancer treatment due to possessing anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative and anti-cancer properties. This study reviews some of the health-beneficial effects of probiotic yeasts and their biological substances like folic acid and β-glucan on cancer … .”

Cancer – Melanoma: Vetvicka V et al; “Glucan Supplementation Has Strong Anti-melanoma Effects: Role of NK Cells;” Anticancer Res,15 Oct;35(10):5287-92. 2015. PMID:26408688  Quote: “…we focused on possible effects of insoluble yeast-derived β-glucan on the growth of melanoma cells. … glucan supplementation had a strong-positive effect in both reducing [melanoma] tumor weight, lung colonies and overall survival rate of tested animals. In addition, glucan inhibited the damage to blood cells and potentiated the effects of regular chemotherapy.”

Cancer – Ostadrahimi A, Esfahani A, etc, “Effect of Beta glucan on quality of life in women with breast cancer undergoing chemotherapy: a randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial.” Adv Pharm Bull, 2014 Oct; 4 (Suppl 1):471-1. doi: 10.5681/apb.2014.070. Epub Aug 25, 2014; PMID:25364665 PMCID: PMC4213788. Quote: The findings suggest that Beta glucan may be useful as a complementary or adjuvant therapy for improving quality of life in breast cancer patients in combination with cancer therapies.”

Cancer – Jafaar ZM, Litchfield LM, etc. “B-D-glucan inhibits endocrine-resistant breast cancer cell proliferation and alters gene expression.” Int J Oncol, 2014 Apr;44(4):1365-75. doi: PMID 24534923; PMCID:PMC3977804. Quote: “B-D-glucan regulates breast cancer-relevant gene expression and may be useful for inhibiting endocrine-resistant breast cancer cell proliferation.”

Cancer – Karaca H, Bozkurt O, etc., “Positive effects of oral B-glucan on mucositis and leukopenia in colorectal cancer patients receiving adjuvant FLFOX-4 combination chemotherapy.” Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2014;15(8):3641-4, PMID 24870771. Quote: “Oral mucositis and diarrhea were less common in the B-glucan group.  We conclude that B-glucan can be used to reduce the adverse effects of chemotherapy. “

Cancer – Aleem E, “B-Glucans and their applications in cancer therapy: focus on human studies,” Anticancer Agents Med Chem, 13(5):709-19, Jun 2013. Quote: β-glucans have been used as adjuvant therapy in clinical trials, mainly in the Far East, with a positive effect on patients’ survival and quality of lifeThe mechanism of action is suggested to be through its stimulation of the immune system.

Cancer – Colon – Chen J, et al, “The application of fungal B-glucans for the treatment of colon cancer.” Anticancer Agents Med Chem. 2013 Jun;13(5):725-30. Jun 2013. PMID:23293888 Quote: Evidence has supported the idea that beta-glucans can decrease the size of xenografted colon cancer tumors via the stimulation of the immune system and direct cytotoxicity.  Beta-glucans can also have synergistic effects with chemotherapeutic agents and other immune stimulators, and an innovative strategy is to use beta-glucans to deliver nanoparticles containing chemotherapeutic agents to the site of the colon cancer and, thus, improve the therapeutic efficacy.

Cancer – Tian J, Ma J, Ma K, etc, “B-Glucan enhances antitumor immune responses by regulating differentiation and function of monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells.”  Eur J Immunonl, 2013 May;43(5):1220-30. doi. Quote: Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) accumulate in tumor-bearing hosts and play a major role in tumor-induced immunosuppression, which hampers effective immuno-therapeutic approaches. B-Glucans have been reported to function as potent immune-modulators to stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses, which contribute to their antitumor property. …thereby leading to the delayed tumor progression.”

Cancer – Zechner-Krpan V, Petravic-Tominac V, GrBa Slobodan, Pnaikota-Krbavcic I, Vidovic L, “Biological Effects of Yeast B-Glucans,”Agriculturae Conspectus Scientificus, 2010, Vol 75, No.4 (149-158). Quote: Immunomodulation by B-glucan, both in vitro and in vivo, inhibits cancer cell growth and metastasis and prevents bacterial infection. In humans, dietary B-glucan lowers blood cholesterol, improves glucose utilization by body cells and also helps wound healing.”

Cancer – LiB, Cai Y, Qi C, etc., “Orally administered particulate beta-glucan modulates tumor-capturing dendritic cells and improves antitumor T-cell responses in cancer.”  Clin Cancer Res, 2010 Nov 1:16(21):5153-64. Quote: “IFN-y [interferon] production of tumor-infiltrating T cells and CTL responses were significantly enhanced on B-glucan treatment, which ultimately resulted in significantly reduced tumor burden. …These data highlight the ability of yeast-derived B-glucan to bridge innate and adaptive antitumor immunity and suggest that it can be used as an adjuvant for tumor immunotherapy.”

Cancer – Vetvicka V; “Glucan-immunostimulant, adjuvant, potential drug,” World J Clin Oncol, 2(2):115-119 Feb 10 2010. Quote“The significant role of glucans in cancer treatment, infection immunity, stress reduction and restoration of damaged bone marrow has already been established.”

Cancer:- Chan GC, Chan WK, Sze DM; “The effects of beta-glucan on human immune and cancer cells.” Dept of Pediatrics and Adolescent Med. U of Hong Kong, Hong Kong; J Hematol Oncol 2:25; Pub med 19515245; June 10, 2009: Quote: …beta-glucans…trigger a group of immune cells including macrophages, neutrophils, monocytes, natural killer cells and dendritic cells. As a consequence, both innate and adaptive immune responses can be modulated by beta-glucans and they can also enhance opsonic and non-opsonic phagocytosis [ingestion of foreign matter including cancer cells]…They [beta-glucans] are internalized and fragmented within the cells; then transported by the macrophages to the marrow and endothelial reticular system. …beta-glucans of different sizes and branching patterns may have significantly variable immune potency.”

Cancer – Immunotherapy: Liu J, Gunn L, Hansen R, Yan J; “Combined yeast-derived beta-glucan with anti-tumor monoclonal antibody for cancer immunotherapy.” Tumor Immunobiology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Ctr, Louisville, KY; Exp Mol Pathol, 86(3): 208-14, PubMed 19454271; June 2009: Quote: Recent studies have unraveled the action mode of yeast-derived beta-glucan in combination with anti-tumor monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in cancer therapy…Pre-clinical animal studies have demonstrated the efficacy of combined beta-glucan with anti-tumor mAb therapy in terms of tumor regression and long-term survival. …It is proposed that the addition of beta-glucan will further improve the therapeutic efficacy of anti-tumor mAbs in cancer patients.”

Cancer, Immunotherapy w/ Monoclonal Antibodies and Beta Glucan: Li B, Allendorf DJ, et al; “Yeast beta-glucan amplifies phagocyte killing of iC3b-opsonized tumor cells via complement receptor 3-Syk-phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase pathway,” J Immunol, Aug 1;177(3): 1651-9 2006. PMID 16849475, Quote: “Anti-tumor mAbs hold promise for cancer therapy, but are relatively inefficient. Therefore, there is a need for agents that might amplify the effectiveness of these mAbs. One such agent is beta glucan… . In this study, we report that tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of beta-glucan and anti-tumor mAb show almost complete cessation of tumor growth. …These results are important inasmuch as beta-glucan, an agent without evident toxicity, may be used to amplify tumor cell killing and may open new opportunities in the immunotherapy of cancer.”

Cancer:- Kogan G, Pajtinka M, Babincova M, Miadokova E, Rauko P, Slamenova D, Korolenko TA; “Yeast cell wall polysaccharides as antioxidants and antimutagens: can they fight cancer?” Inst of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia; Neoplasma 55(5):387-93 2008. Quote: “…yeast cell wall beta-D glucans reveal immunomodulating properties which allows for their application in anti-infective and antitumor therapy. The derivatives of beta-D-glucan exerted potent enhancement of tumor necrosis [killing] factor alpha (TNF-alpha) …and revealed synergistic effect with cyclophosphamide in the treatment of Lewis lung carcinoma and two types of lymphosarcoma in murine models. The results indicate protective antioxidant, antimutagenic  and antigenotoxic [deters physical dna damage] activities…and imply their potential application in anticancer prevention/therapy.”

Cancer: – Salvador C, Li B, Hansen R, Cramer DE, Kong M, Yan J. “Yeast-Derived {beta}-Glucan Augments the Therapeutic Efficacy Mediated by Anti-Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Monoclonal Antibody in Human Carcinoma Xenograft Models.” Clin Cancer Res, 14(4):1239-47. Feb 15 2008

Cancer – Breast: Demir G, Klkein HO, Mandel-Molinas N, Tuzuner N; “Beta glucan induces proliferation and activation of monocytes in peripheral blood of patients with advanced breast cancer.” Istanbul U, Medical Oncology Dept, Turkey; Int Immunopharmacol. 7(1):113-6; PubMed 17161824. Jan 2007. Quote: In human studies it has been shown that beta glucan has an immunomodulatory effect and can increase the efficacy of the biological therapies in cancer patients. In this prospective clinical trial we assessed in vivo effects of short term oral beta glucan administration on peripheral blood monocytes and their expression of activation markers in patients with advanced breast cancer. METHODS: 23 female patients with advanced breast cancer were included in the study. … Sixteen healthy females with a median age of 48 years served as the control group for comparing the initial blood samples. Peripheral blood samples were drawn on day zero and patients started receiving oral 1-3, 1-6, D-beta glucan daily. Blood samples were recollected on the 15th day. In the initial samples mean lymphocyte count was significantly lower in the patients with breast cancer (1281+/-306/mm(3) versus 1930+/-573/mm(3), p=0.04).

In the patients with breast cancer, mean monocyte count which was 326+124/mm(3) at the beginning, was increased to 496+194/mm(3) at the 15th day. …Oral beta glucan administration seems to stimulate proliferation and activation of peripheral blood monocytes in vivo in patients with advanced breast cancer.

Cancer:  Akramiene D, Kondrotas A, Didziapetriene J, Kevelaitis E; “Effects of beta-glucans on the immune system.” Medicina (Kaunas). Dept of Physiology, Kaunas U of Medicine, Kaunas, Lithunia. 43(8):597-606; 2007. Quote: “Beta-glucans are naturally occurring polysaccharides….These substances increase host immune defense by activating complement system, enhancing macrophages and natural killer cell function.  beta-Glucans also show anticarcinogenic activity. They can prevent oncogenesis due to the protective effect against potent genotoxic carcinogens. As immunostimulating agent, which acts through the activation of macrophages and NK cell cytotoxicity, beta-glucan can inhibit tumor growth…reduce tumor proliferation, prevent tumor metastasis. beta-Glucan as adjuvant to cancer chemotherapy and radiotherapy demonstrated the positive role in the restoration of hematopiesis [red blood cells] following by bone marrow injury. 

Immunotherapy using monoclonal antibodies is a novel strategy of cancer treatment. These [monoclonal] antibodies activate complement system and opsonize tumor cells with iC3b fragment. …tumor cells, as well as other host cells, lack beta-glucan as a surface component and cannot trigger complement receptor 3-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and initiate tumor-killing activity.  This mechanism [tumor-killing activity] could be induced in the presence of beta-glucans.

Cancer: Li B, Allendorf D, Hansen R, Marroquin J, Ding C, Cramer DE, Yan J; “Yeast beta-Glucan Amplifies Phagocyte Killing of iC3b-Opsonized Tumor Cells via Complement Receptor 3-Syk-Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase Pathway.” J Immunology: 1:177(3):1661-9. Tumor Immunobiology Program, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY. Aug 2006. Quote: “Anti-tumor mAbs [monoclonal antibodies] hold promise for cancer therapy, but are relatively inefficient. …In this study, we report that tumor-bearing mice treated with a combination of beta-glucan and an anti-tumor mAb show almost complete cessation of tumor growth.  …The importance of these observations is that B-glucan is without evident toxicity, and can be orally administered and used in conjunction with existing anti-tumor mAbs [monoclonal antibodies] to greatly amplify tumor cell killing. We believe this may open new opportunities in the immunotherapy of cancer.”

Cancer: Yan J, Allendorf DJ, Brandley B, “Yeast whole glucan particle (WGP) beta-glucan in conjunction with antitumour monoclonal antibodies to treat cancer.” Expert Opin Biol Ther; 5(5):691-702; James Graham Brown Cancer Ctr, Louisville, KY, 2005. Quote: “Extensive studies in preclinical animal tumour models have demonstrated the efficacy of combined oral particulate yeast beta-glucan with antitumour mAb [monoclonal antibodies] in terms of tumour regression and long-term survival. It is proposed that the addition of beta-glucan will further improve the clinical therapeutic efficacy of antitumour mAbs in cancer patients.”

Cancer: Allendorf DJ, Yan J, Ross GD, Hansen RD, Baran JT, Suffarao K, Wang L, Haribabu B, C5a-mediated leukotrienes B4-amplified neutrophil chemotaxis is essential in tumor immunotherapy facilitated by anti-tumor antibody and B-glucan.” J Immunology: 174:7050-56. 2005

Cancer: Gelderman K, Tomlinson S, Ross G, Gorter A; “Complement function in mAb-mediated cancer immunotherapy.” Trends in Immun: Vol 25 No 3, 159-164; March 2004. Quote: “…the use of B-glucan as an adjuvant for mAb [monoclonal antibodies]immunotherapy enables iC3b deposited on tumor cells by mAbs to activate complement [30 proteins circulating in blood plasma] receptor 3 (CR3) on effector cells, thus inducing CR3-dependent cellular cytotoxicity [toxic to cells].

Cancer:: Hong F, Yan J, Baran JT, Allendorf DJ, Hansen RD, Ostroff G, Ross G, “Mechanism by Which Orally Administered B-1,3-Glucans Enhance the Tumoricidal Activity of Antitumor Monoclonal Antibodies in Murine Tumor Models,” The J of Immunology 173:797-806. James Graham Brown Cancer Ctr, Louisville, KY; July 15, 2004: Quote: “Orally administered B-1,3-glucans were taken up by macrophages that transported them to spleen, lymph nodes, and bone marrow. Within the bone marrow, the macrophages degraded the large B-1,3 glucans into smaller soluble B-1,3-glucan fragments that were taken up by the CR3 [receptors] of marginated granulocytes [white blood cells formed in the bone marrow]. These granulocytes with CR3-bound B-1,3-glucan-fluorescein were shown to kill iC3b-opsonized tumor [cancer] cells following their recruitment to a site of complement activation resembling a tumor coated with mAB [monoclonal antibodies].”

Cancer: Hunter K, Gault R, Jordan F, “Mode of Action of B-Glucan Immunopotentiators-Research Summary Release,” Department of Microbiology, University of Nevada School of Medicine, Jan 2001. Quote: “MG Glucan has been shown to enhance the envelopment and digestion (phagocytosis) of pathogenic microorganisms that cause infectious disease…The Beta-1,3/1,6 glucans additionally enhance the ability of macrophages, one of the most important cells in the immune system, to kill tumor cells. Laboratory studies have revealed the new MG Glucan is significantly effective at activating Macrophages, and via the Macrophages, the entire immune cascade including T-Cells and B-Cells.”

Cancer: Ross GD, Vetvicka V, et al; “Therapeutic intervention with complement and beta-glucan in cancer.” Dept of Pathology, U of Louisville KY, 42(1-3):61-74; May 1999. Quote: “…the cytotoxic activation of beta-glucan-primed NK cell CR3 by iC3b-opsinized tumors is shown to be accompanied by a tumor-localized secretion of the cytokines TNFalpha, IFNalpha, IFNgamma, and IL-6.”

Cancer – Carcinoma-Colon/Liver“Inhibition of establishment and growth of mouse liver [colon carcinoma] mestastase after treatment with interferon gamma and beta-1,3-D-glucan;””Hepatology, 27:25, 1241-8. May 1998. Quote: “Combination of IFN-gamma and animated beta-1,3-D glucan (AG) inhibited the growth of liver metastases [of colon carcinoma] almost entirely.”

Cancer –  Carcinoma-Bladder: Thompson I.M., Spence C.R. Lamn D.L., DiLuzio N.R., “ Immunochemotherapy of bladder carcinoma with glucan and cyclophosphamide”, Am. J. Med. Sci. 294 (5): 294-300.  1987.*

Cancer – Carcinoma of the Breast: Mansell P.W.A., Ichinose H., Reed R.J., Krements E.T., McNamee R.B., Di Luzio N.R.; “Macrophage-mediated Destruction of Human Malignant Cells in Vitro”.  Journal of National Cancer Institute; 54: 571-580. 1975. Quote: “The initial 9 patients studied had malignant carcinoma of the breast. Control and experimental lesions were injected; subsequently biopsies were performed at varying intervals for histologic evaluation. Always when glucan or glucan and RF fraction were administered intra-lesionally, the size of the lesion was strikingly reduced in as short a period as 5 days. …In small lesions, resolution was complete, whereas in large lesions, resolutions was partial.”

Cancer – Chemotherapy: Damia, et al, “Prevention of Acute Chemotherapy-Induced Death in Mice by Recombinate Human Interleukin 1: Protection from Hematological and Nonhematological Toxicities”, Cancer Research, vol. 52, pp. 4082-4089.

Cancer Lung: Roudi R, Mohammadi SR, Roubary M, Mohsenzadegan M, “Lung Cancer and B-glucans: review of potential therapeutic applications,” Invest New Drugs 10.1007/s 10637-017-0449-9, , Mar 16, 2017. Quote: β-glucans…potentiate the immune system against microbes and toxic substances. Moreover, β-glucans are known to exhibit direct anticancer effects and can suppress cancer proliferation through immunomodulatory pathways.

Cancer –Lymphoma: Cassone A, Bistoni F., Cenci E, Pesce C., Tissi L., Marconi P., “Immunopotentiation of anticancer chemotherapy by Candida albicans, other yeast and insoluble glucan in an experimental lymphoma model.” Sabouraudia, 20:115-125, 1982.

Cancer – Malignancies: DiLuzio N.R., et al., “The Employment of Glucan and Glucan Activated Macrophages in the Enhancement of Host Resistance to Malignancies in Experimental Animals,” in The Macrophage in Neoplasia; Academic Press, Inc. New York; pp. 181-198. 1976.

Cancer – Lewis Lung Carcinoma: Suzuki, et al, “Inhibition of experimental pulmonary metastasis of Lewis lung carcinoma by orally administered B-glucan in mice., ” Chem. Pharm. Bull. (Todyo, 39:1606-1608, 1991. PMID: 1934182..

Cancer – Mammary Carcinoma: DiLuzio N.R. Williams D.L. et al, “Comparative evaluation of the tumor inhibitory and antibacterial activity of solubilized and particulate glucan,” Recent Results Cancer Res 75:165-172. 1980.* Quote: “Intravenous administration of soluble or particulate glucan resulted in significant reduction in the growth of a syngeneic anaplastic mammary carcinoma and melanoma B16 and enhanced survival.”

Cancer – Mammary Carcinoma: Proctor, et al., “Development of a Bioassay for Anti-Tumor Activity of the Reticuloendoethelial Stimulant Class: Reproducibility of the Bioassay”. J. Immunopharmacol.; 3: 385-395. 1981-1982.* Quote: “Intravenously administered DiLuzio glucan…caused dose dependent increases in the tumor cell loss from the lungs of …mice challenged respectively with intravenous 125IuDR labelled B16 or T 1699 mammary carcinoma cells.”

Cancer – Melanoma: DiLuzio N.R. Williams D.L. et al, “Comparative evaluation of the tumor inhibitory and antibacterial activity of solubilized and particulate glucan,” Recent Results Cancer Res 75:165-172. 1980* Quote: “Intravenous administration of soluble or particulate glucan resulted in significant reduction in the growth of a syngeneic anaplastic mammary carcinoma and melanoma B16 and enhanced survival.”

Cancer – Ovarian: Kobayashi HYoshida RKanada YFukuda YYagyu TInagaki KKondo TKurita NSuzuki MKanayama NTerao T., “Suppressing effects of daily oral supplementation of beta-glucan extracted from Agaricus blazei Murill on spontaneous and peritoneal disseminated metastasis in mouse model. ”Dept of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hamamatsu U Sch of Med;  J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 5 May 10, 2005. Quote: “Results: … (1) beta-glucan had cytotoxic effect against human ovarian cancer HRA cells in vitro; (2) beta-glucan promotes p38 MAPK activity for suppressing HRA cell proliferation and amplifying the apoptosis cascade.  Conclusion: Treatment with beta-glucan may be beneficial for cancer patients with or at risk for metastasis.”

Cancer Radiation Protection: Tabele F, et al: “Radioprotective Effect of Beta D-Glucan and Vitamin E on Gamma Irradiated Mouse,” J Clin Diagn Res,; PMID:28384957   PMCID: PMC5376888, Feb 11 2017. Quote: “It is shown that beta-D-glucan is an immunologic system booster with radioprotectory effects. Radioprotectors are chemical components that can alleviate biological damage produced by ionizing radiation.”

Cancer – Radiotherapy: Gu YH, Takagi Y, et al; “Enhancement of radioprotection and anti-tumor immunity by yeast-derived beta-glucan in mice,” J Med Food. 8(2) 154-8; Dept of Radiological Technology, Suzuka U of Med Sc, Suzuka, Japan, Summer 2005. Quote: Intraperitoneal injection of beta-glucan was shown to greatly delay mortality in mice exposed to whole-body X-ray radiation and tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice. …Augmented immunological activity as seen in increased NK (natural killer) and LAK (lymphokine-activated killer) activity by beta-glucan seems to play a role in preventing secondary infections associated with irradiation and probably contributes to the attenuated [reduced] tumor growth in tumor-bearing mice through enhanced anti-tumour immunity.  These results suggest that beta-glucan may be a promising adjunct treatment for cancer patients receiving radiotherapy.”

Cancer-Sarcoma: Sveinbjornsson B, Olsen R, et al, “Macrophage cytotoxicity against murine met A sarcoma involves nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis.” Biochem Bioophys Res Commun. Jun 25;223(3):643-9; Jun 1996. Quote: “When stimulated with interferon-gamma and soluble beta-1,3-D-glucan, macrophages exerted cytotoxicity towards syngeneic Meth A tumor cells. This cytoxicity was associated with a high level of nitric oxide production.”

Cancer – Sarcoma and Melanoma: Williams DL, et al, “Therapeutic efficacy of glucan in a murine model of hepatic metastatic disease,”Hepatology 5(2):198-206. Mar 1985.* Quote: “…coincubation of particulate glucan with diverse populations of normal or tumor cells in vitro indicated that glucan exerted a direct cytostatic effect on sarcoma and melanoma cells and, in contrast, had a proliferative effect on normal spleen and bone marrow cells.”

Cancer – Sarcoma: Seljelid R, et al, “Evidence that tumor necrosis induced by an irradiated beta 1-3D polyglucose is mediated by a concerted action of local and systemic cytokines,” Scand J Immuno 30(6): 687-694. Dec 1989.* Quote: “Aminated beta 1-3D polyglucose (AG) causes regression of Meth A sarcoma in syngeneic mice when injected systemically on day 7 after tumour inoculation. AG does not concentrate in the tumour, but distributes throughout the body.  AG treatment causes release of large amounts of interleukin 1 (IL-1) both in vivo [in the body] and in macrophage cultures in vitro [out of body].”

Cancer : Carrow, D.J.; “Beta-1,3-glucan as a Primary Immune Activator,” Townsend Letter; June 1996. Quote: “Over the past 11 months I have been able to convince five out of eight breast cancer patients who were undergoing radiation therapy, to consume one capsule of beta 1,3/1,6 glucan (NSC-24 3 mg) three times per day.  To date, I have observed that none of the patients using NSC-24 have suffered from any type of radiation injury to the skin, while the three patients who chose not to use NSC-24 all show signs of extensive radiation damage to the skin.”

Cancer – Melanoma: Vetvicka V, Vetvickova J; “Glucan Supplementation Has Strong Anti-melanoma Effects: Role of NK Cells,” J Anticancer Res, Oct, 35(10):5287-92 , 2015 PMID 26408686 – PubMed-in progress. Quote: β-Glucan is a natural immunomodulator …with significant beneficial properties in infectious diseases and cancer therapy. … we focused on possible effects of insoluble yeast-derived β-glucan on the growth of melanoma cells. …glucan supplementation had a strong-positive effect in both reducing tumor weight, lung colonies and overall survival rate of tested animals. In addition, glucan inhibited the damage to blood cells and potentiated the effects of regular chemotherapy.”

Cancer – Melanoma: Bogwald J, Johnson E, Seljelid R;, “The Cytotoxic Effect of Mouse Macrophages Stimulated in vitro by a .beta. 1,3-D-Glucan from Yeast Cell Walls”. Scand. J. Immuol. 15: 297-304. 1982.  Institute of Med Bio, U of Tromso, Norway.  Quote“ Macrophages stimulated by an insoluble beta 1-3-D-glucan from yeast cell walls were able to destroy tumor cells as measured by the release of radioactive label from prelabelled 14C-thymidine cells.  Target cells were B-16 melanoma, P-815 mastocytoma, and the L-929 cell line.   A significant target cell killing by macrophages stimulated by glucan was observed after 72-96 h.”

Cancer – Metastasis: Kobayashi HYoshida RKanada YFukuda YYagyu TInagaki KKondo TKurita NSuzuki MKanayama N,Terao T., “Suppressing effects of daily oral supplementation of beta-glucan extracted from Agaricus blazei Murill on spontaneous and peritoneal disseminated metastasis in mouse model. ”Dept of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hamamatsu U Sch of Med;  J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 5 May 10, 2005.  Quote: “Conclusion: Treatment with beta-glucan may be beneficial for cancer patients with or at risk for metastasis.”

Cancer: Jordan, F.; “An Effective Immune Response Potentiator– Beta-1,3/1,6-glucan Derived from Yeast Cell Wall,” Macrophage Technologies Publication, pp 1-7; 1998.

Cancer: Mansell P.W.A., et al., Activation of the Alternative Complement Pathway by Water-Insouble Glucans of Streptococcus mutans: the Relation Between Their Chemical Structures and Activating Potencies”. Macrophage-Mediated Destruction of Human Malignant Cells In Vitro; Inai et al., J. Immunol (1976); 1256-1260. 1976.

Cancer: Mansell P.W.A., Ichinose H., Reed R.J., Krements E.T., McNamee R.B., Di Luzio N.R.; Macrophage-medicated Destruction of Human Malignant Cells in Vivo.  Journal of National Cancer Institute; 54: 571-580. 1975.

Cancer: Niskanen E.O., Burgaleta C., Cline M.J., Goide D.W.; Effect of glucan, a macrophage activator, on murine hemopoietic cell proliferation in diffusion chambers in mice; Cancer Res 38: 1406-1409, 1978.

Cancer: Schultz, et al., “Association of Macrophage Activation with Anti-tumor Activity by Synthetic and Biologic Agents”.  Cancer Res.; 37:3338-43. 1977.

Cancer: White Cell Enhancement: DiLuzio N.R., et al., The Macrophage and Cancer, James et al., eds: Edinburgh Univer. Med. Pres.; pp. 181-201. 1977.

Cancer: Williams D.L., Browder I. and DiLuzio N.R., “Methods and compositions for prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of infections,”U.S. Patent 4900722, Issued Feb 13, 1990.  Quote: “The soluble phosphorylated glucans are also useful for stimulating macrophage cells, either in vivo or in vitro, to produce a cytotoxic/cyctostatic factor effective against cancer cells.” [cytotoxic: toxic to cell – prevents reproduction or growth]

Cancer – Sacrcoma Tumors: Sveinbj B, Seternes O, Seljelid R, “Macrophage cytotoxicity against murine meth A sarcoma involves nitric oxide-mediated apoptosis,” Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 223:3, 643-9. Jun 1996.  Quote: “When stimulated with interferon-gamma and soluble beta 1,3-D-glucan, macrophages exerted cytotoxicity towards syngeneic Meth A [sarcoma]tumor cells.”

Cancer: Williams D.L., et al.; Curr. Chemotherapy  and Infectious Disease, Proc.; 11th 1CC and 19th 1ICAAC pp. 1724-1726. 1980.

Leukemia: DiLuzio NR, Williams DL, “Protective effect of glucan against systemic Staphylococcus aureus septicemia in normal and leukemic mice,” Infect Immun 20(3):804-810.  Dept of Physiology, Tulane U, New Orleans, LA.*  Jun 1978.  Quote: “These data denote that glucan enhances nonspecific resistance to S. aureus sepsis, promotes survival during leukemic episodes, and increases survival time of leukemic mice with experimentally induced staphylococcal infection.”

Leukemia: Stewart C.C., et al., “Preliminary Observations on the Effect of Glucan in Combination with Radiation and Chemotherapy in Four Murine Tumors,” Cancer Treat. Prep.; 62: 1867-72. 1978. Quote: “The efficacy of glucan in combination with BCNU chemotherapy was measured using the disseminated AKR transplantable leukemia; the combination yielded a high level of cures compared to no survival for either agent alone.”

Leukemia: Williams D.L, DiLuzio NR, “Glucan induced modification of experimental Staphylococcus aureus infection in normal, leukemic and immunosuppressed mice.” Adv Exp Med Biol 121(A):291-306. 1979*  Quote: “…A post-treatment regimen of glucan significantly enhanced survival of AKR/J mice with lymphocytic leukemia as well as leukemic mice with experimentally induced systemic staphylococcal infection.”

Lung Cancer: Roudi R, Mohammadi SR, Roubary M, Mohsenzadegan M, “Lung Cancer and B-glucans: review of potential therapeutic applications,” Invest New Drugs 10.1007/s 10637-017-0449-9, , Mar 16, 2017. Quote: β-glucans…potentiate the immune system against microbes and toxic substances. Moreover, β-glucans are known to exhibit direct anticancer effects and can suppress cancer proliferation through immunomodulatory pathways.

Lymphosarcoma Cancer: Kogan G, Pajtinka M, Babincova M, Miadokova E, Rauko P, Slamenova D, Korolenko TA; “Yeast cell wall polysaccharides as antioxidants and antimutagens: can they fight cancer?” Inst of Chemistry, Slovak Academy of Sciences, Bratislava, Slovakia; Neoplasma 55(5):387-93 2008.

Quote: “…yeast cell wall beta-D glucans reveal immunomodulating properties which allows for their application in anti-infective and antitumor therapy. The derivatives of beta-D-glucan exerted potent enhancement of tumor necrosis [killing] factor alpha (TNF-alpha) …and revealed synergistic effect with cyclophosphamide in the treatment of Lewis lung carcinoma and two types of lymphosarcoma in murine models. The results indicate protective antioxidant, antimutagenic  and antigenotoxic [deters physical dna damage] activities…and imply their potential application in anticancer prevention/therapy.”

Melanoma – Cancer: Vetvicka V, Vetvickova J, “Glucan Supplementation Has Strong Anti-melanoma Effects: Role of NK Cells, Anticancer Res. 35(10):5287-92. Oct 2015. PMID:26408688.

Quote: ”…we focused on possible effects of insoluble yeast-derived β-glucan on the growth of melanoma cells. …glucan supplementation had a strong-positive effect in both reducing tumor weight, lung colonies and overall survival rate of tested animals. In addition, glucan inhibited the damage to blood cells and potential effects of regular chemotherapy.”

Sarcoma: Seljelid R, et al, “Evidence that tumor necrosis induced by an irradiated beta 1-3D polyglucose is mediated by a concerted action of local and systemic cytokines,” Scand J Immuno 30(6): 687-694. Dec 1989.*  Quote: “Aminated beta 1-3D polyglucose (AG) causes regression of Meth A sarcoma in syngeneic mice when injected systemically on day 7 after tumour inoculation. AG does not concentrate in the tumour, but distributes throughout the body.  AG treatment causes release of large amounts of interleukin 1 (IL-1) both in vivo [in the body] and in macrophage cultures in vitro [out of body].”

Sarcoma: Williams DL, et al, “Therapeutic efficacy of glucan in a murine model of hepatic metastatic disease,” Hepatology 5(2):198-206. Mar 1985.* Quote: “…coincubation of particulate glucan with diverse populations of normal or tumor cells in vitro indicated that glucan exerted a direct cytostatic effect on sarcoma and melanoma cells and, in contrast, had a proliferative effect on normal spleen and bone marrow cells.”


 

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